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Guest MrMudd

Translation for Alasrojas Su-25 Review

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Guest MrMudd

Basing to us on one of the last versions of development of LOMAC, we are going to present/display in this article a detailed approach to which it will be navigation and the combat in Su-25 "Frogfoot", the Russian counterpart to the A-10 "American Warthog".


With this presentation we try to give an idea of the high level of detail that is being put in the modelización of the systems, as well as to mainly offer a glance different from LOMAC, separated from traditional "previews" centered in the graphical aspects. Of course, everything what follows next is based on a preliminary version of the simulator and, therefore, he is subject to changes until the moment at which it leaves on sale. Evidently, we hoped that these changes, to take place, serve to increase still more if it is possible the fidelity of the systems and the sensation to be really to the controls of a Frogfoot.



Vista of the cabin of Su-25 in LOMAC For the lovers of the historical comparisons, we recommended to you to visit this connection in where there is a pair of screens of cabins of LOMAC of year 2000. And if we want to go back still more, this other connection with cabins of Flanker 1.5. Ways of Navigation To sail in Su-25 do not have anything to do with which we are customary to make in the Flanker or the Fulcrum: here there is no information on way-points in the MFD (that, by the way, does not exist) nor in the HUD, so everything we will have to do it to old usanza, reading the analogical instruments and having studied beforehand our route.


Let us indicate, however, that the capacity to do a navigation perfect following the indicators analogical is not no newness, since it is one of the strongpoints of the series Flanker (1.x, 2.x) as any pilot of Flanker that boasts knows amply.


In this first part of the article, we are going to see the different ways from navigation of Su-25 and how they affect to the information shown by the main navigation instrument, the HSI (Indicating of Horizontal Situation).


The explanation will be based on the initial situation of the airplane when beginning a mission with the following flight plan: Way In Route Nothing else to enter cabin we were with the instruments in navigation mode, indicating that we are located in the starting point and route towards the point marked like "1" in the flight plan.


If we threw a look to our main navigation instrument, the HSI (Indicating of Horizontal Situation), we will see that it plots a course to us of 177º, as it was to hope. Good, in fact he is something more complicated than that, since what it is marking to the course 177º is not a needle, but two: a needle with double head (longer) than marks to the wished route and another simple one with round head that it plots the direct course towards the following way-point. In this case, as we are on the wished route and with the correct course, the heads of both needles are overlapped: If you do not see the difference between both needles in this image, you do not worry because more ahead each needle will plot a different course and they will be distinguished facilmente In addition to the course, we have another indicator to the left of the HSI that indicates the distance to us to the selected way-point: Whenever the navigation mode give ins, for example to happen to way it fights, is possible to return pressing key "1 once". Way Returned to Base If being in navigation mode we pressed key 1 again, we happened to the way BO3B (this is cirílico), that serves to indicate us the route of return to the landing base which we have assigned in the flight plan.



If we paid attention to the map of the mission, the course that takes from the starting point to the IAF (Initial Approach Fix or Initial Punto of Approach), that is the point in where the glide path is due to initiate, is of 130º: In the drawing one is to the IAF and MM (Middle Marker or Intermediate Baliza) of the glide path. MM will be used during the landing, when the airplane is in way ILS. In the case that occupies to us, the two needles will be aligned and indicating the course 130º, as it was to hope: Both needles aim at the IAF. Way ILS If we pressed by 3ª time key "1", we entered way LOC (again in cirílico). In this situation, the two needles plot different courses: The double needle (wished route) plots the course of the localizer of the track of the destination airport (track axis 072º). The head (circulito) of the simple needle indicates a course (115º) towards the intermediate point between the track and the IAF, that as or we said before calls MM or intermediate beacon: The needle double mark the course of the axis of track and simple the course to MM (middle to marker or intermediate beacon). Way of Pilotage If we pressed by 4ª time key "1", we will enter the pilotage way.


In this way of navigation, the needles of the HSI behave of the following way: The double needle will mark the siempreNorte-South: the head towards the North and the tail towards the South. The simple needle mark always towards the intermediate point between the track and the IAF like in way ILS: The simple needle mark course to MM and the double indicates to the north When pressing the key "1" by 5ª time the indicator will indicate to the way-point 0 or initial. One sixth pulsation does that we initiate the cycle again, entering navigation way in route. The bearings of the needles will be now towards point "1" of the flight plan, that is the same case in which we will at any time be if during the mission we changed to navigation mode from the way attacks. With a little customary it is not difficult to distinguish between the different ways:


The way Pilotage always marks the North-South and after a pressing of a key 1 the navigation mode in route comes. Way LOC indicates the course of the track. In way BO3B the two needles initially are always aligned. Of the side of the information that, at the moment, lies down in lack in the cabin of Su-25, it is in favor the indication of the present way-point and the navigation way in which is the HSI.


When being a preliminary version of LOMAC, we can hope that to the moment of the launching already it is had these navigation aids. Ways battle Once Vista navigation, we are going to happen to the part that all usually we find more interesting: the combat. Being as an attack airplane is Su-25, most of the combat will be air-to-ground, but for that reason we are not going away to find totally defenseless in case of finding us with a enemy hunting. As we will see more ahead, also we will have the possibility of pointing some aerial victory to us.



In order to illustrate all this, we are going to see a case practical in that we will sail towards the attack sector in where we will use missiles antiradar, missiles guided by laser and tube or rockets to attack a convoy protected by a SAM of cut-means reach. Also we will use A-a missiles and the tube against two Hind helicopters that there are in the zone: Navigation until the objective the mission begins in flight, once finalized the phase of takeoff and ascent from Saki, and therefore we will be in the cabin with both needles of the centered HSI and coming directly to the first way-point.


We are going to see with detail which indicates each one of the indicators of cabin in this situation, although before it, we must know a functionality the simulator that is going to allow to see the dials to us with the Maxima clarity: the sticky keys or "sticky-keys". A LOMAC characteristic is that it allows to memorizar multiple views in cabin by means of which they have given in calling "sticky-keys". Each Vista can be programmed so that it shows to an instrument in individual or a zone of the board with the degree of zoom lens necessary to read the indications with comfort. "sticky-keys" is formed by key INS (numeric keypad 0) and by the joint pulsation of this one and another anyone of the numeric keypad.


In order to memorizar a concrete position it is necessary to make the following thing: To press the combination that we want to modify, for example INS+KP3 Ajustar the Vista to convenience, fits and zoom lens. To press ready ALT+INS and, the new Vista will have been kept. And already without more introduction, we see the initial situation in cabin:


1, AOA of 5º and indicator of G?s marking 1 G.

2, Indicated speed: 440kph. Not to confuse it with ANVIL (quick true) nor with GS (quick on the ground).

3, Pressure altitude: 2000m. is moderate on the level of the sea. Not to confuse it with the height on the ground.

4, Radio altimeter: The red flag indicates to us that it is deactivated since we are over 1500m on the ground below that height the flag it will disappear and begin to indicate.

5, Reserved aerobrakes, flaps and train. Let us remember that the Su25 has two positions of flaps. When taking with 2 flaps the nose position will be lower increasing therefore frontal the visibility oblique.

6, Distance to the following way-point (in navigation mode) or to the IAF (in way return) or to MM (intermediate beacon, in way ILS). At this moment it indicates 9 km to the first way-point.

7, ADI (Attitude Director Indicator or Indicador de Actitud), with the bars of FD (Flight Director) centered and the indicator of deviation of route also centered.

8, HSI (already seen in the part of navigation), with both needles simple and double, centered. Let us remember that the double needle indicates the Wished or Required Route to us and the simple needle indicates the Direct Route to us towards the station. The head of the double needle is the heaviest part and finishes in a triangle. The tail is the finest part, finishes in a line and it indicates the course to us of the Radial one in which we were then.

9, Variometer (it indicates in m/s) and Turn indicator (cane and ball)

10. Clock of attack (it indicates the hour of the mission) and chronometer (ALT+C)

11. Indicator of Mach.

12, Revolutions of the motors in percentage. Being 100% the maximum revolutions of the motor.

13, Temperature of exhaust gases of motors (EGT)

14. Alertador of threats

15. Fuel level gauge. It indicates the fuel level in the internal tanks.


From this initial situation, we are going to take advantage of to practice a little navigation before arriving at the zone of attack. For example, if we turned 30º to the right turning aside to us of the route according to sample following the map, the indication of the HSI will have changed of the following way: As it is possible to be seen, the present course is of 30º and the double needle continues indicating the wished route the north-south, but the simple needle indicates the direct course to us towards the programmed way-point (330º in this case). This means that if we turned 30º to the left we center the double needle and we are in the same course that marks this part of the flight plan (North course) but without directing us to the way-point 1, but that we will be flying parallel to him. If, on the contrary, we had turned 60º to the left we would have centered the simple needle: we would be going to the way-point 1 but following the predicted flight plan (the double needle will mark 30º the right). Let us see therefore that it is what there would be to make to return again to the route: Interception of the route in approach: If we continued in course 30º, the simple needle will continue turning towards the left, always marking the location of the way-point 1. You remember whenever "the heads fall and the tails rise": the head will continue falling and the tail of the needle will be risen. For example, if in this case we turned to course 300º what would happen? The head of the needle would fall towards our right and it would be approached towards the route required of 330º, we would be in an intercept course in approach towards the station or way-point.


Interception of the route in distance: Following with the same previous case, the tail of the simple needle would begin to raise approaching the course of the tail of the double needle (180º). The tail of the simple needle indicates the radial one to us in which we were at every moment and, in the same way, the tail of the double needle indicates radial or the course to us in distance from the way-point (or station). Therefore, to intercept radial 180º of the station (or way-point) but in distance, it would be necessary to turn to a course of 210º, or better of 225º since the radial ones in distance usually are intercepted with 45º. In the following image we finished flying over the first way-point: When flying over the way-point, the attack computer changes the following one automatically. Now the double needle indicates 280º that it is the course between the 2 WPT 1 and WPT or attack sector. As perfectly we are established in the route, the simple needle will mark to the same course 280º, and the indicating deviation of route (CDI or TDI, marked by the red arrow) also is perfectly centered. The distance to the attack sector is now of 15 km.


Way of air-to-ground attack As already we are in course of the starting point of attack, we happened to the Air-to-ground way: We can continue sailing towards the attack sector since the simple needle continues indicating the course towards the second way-point or attack sector (280º). It is important to plan the flight well before the takeoff (way-points, zone of attack) since the final identification of the objective has to be visual unless our mission is exclusively of antiradar. When leaving the navigation mode loses the indication of distance to the way-point (you verify that it indicates 0Km), reason why is important to become an idea of how long lacks until the objective before happening to the attack way.


In order to accomplish the mission, and taking advantage of that LOMAC allows to choose individually what it mounts in each pylon, we have loaded our airplane with a customized mixture of arms and countermeasures that, in our opinion, are most effective for the occasion: We are going to see as once in flight we can use the panel of armament located to our left to see the pylon selected, considering that the selection is of outside inwards, that is which the first most outer pylon will be selected and so on until arriving at the most inner pylon. The green light indicates its availability to us and it will be extinguished when he is empty.


The identificativas abbreviations are the following ones (tomandonos some licenses with the cirílicos characters): HPC: rockets YP: missiles A-t or A-a b: pumps BPY: black and white rifled gun: without the ammunition in the tube Considering that the pylons are numbered to of left to right in the cabin panel, this is the selection that we will see in the armament panel according to the selection which we do: Selected and available pylons 2 and 9 with rockets (HPC). Underneath HPC, it appears (BPY) to indicate that we have tube. Selected pylons 3 and 8. As in the 3 there is a log electronic counter measures, he only appears available the 8 with a missile (YP). Selected pylons 4 and 7 with missiles (YP). As it is possible to be seen, we followed of outside towards inside. Selected pylons 5 and 6. As in the 6 there is a fuel tank, the pump (B) only appears available that there is in the 5. When selecting the tube, is indicated with the letters (BPY). In the inferior indicator it appears "K" indicating that the shipper is over half. As we are distributing ammunition shooting the tube, the load indicator will show 1/2, 1/4 and, when draining, white and black rays.


Before entering into combat, always it is a good idea to activate our electronic countermeasures equipment (electronic counter measures). When doing it a luminous pilot in the panel to our right will ignite to us: And now that already we know all our systems and we have activated the electronic defenses, we are ready to enter into combat.


Let us see how to use all the arsenal that we took under the wings: The missiles antiradar Kh-58 and Kh-25 MP do not have greater mystery, it scores the nose of the airplane towards the source of emission of electromagnetic energy and bloca pressing the key TAB. Piper will be centered in the emission source and it will indicate the oblique distance and the minimum range mark to us of launching in the outer circle. These missiles are of the type shoot and forget, so we can change the course towards another source of emission to blocar again as long as we have left missiles, of course. The missiles with laser guidance Kh25L and Kh-25ML require a more complicated handling since they need that the pilot designates the target manually.


First it is necessary to make visual contact with the enemy with the objective and to initiate a reduction, neither too much pronouncing nor too flat, towards the same one. To compensate the airplane correctly to maintain this reduction at the chosen speed, for which it can helpful be to activate the automatic gases, thus avoiding later changes of the compensator that ruin our aim. With the nose aiming towards the objective, to activate the laser with the key "Or". He will appear to pipper in the HUD and we will have to move it with the cursor of the control lever until locating it on the target, moment in which the blocamos pressing the key TAB. Piper will pay attention to the point of the selected land and it will give to instructions of oblique distance to the objective as well as bearing to us of the minimum range of launching.


The marks that there are in the ring of pipper provide the following information: INDICATORS DINAMICOS the fine arc is the oblique range dial to the target (tour in counterclockwise sense). The heavy arc indicates the remaining distance until arriving at the minimum range of firing (tour in counterclockwise sense). The small triangle that is seen in the position of the 12, within the ring of pipper, is a warping indicator. MARKS ESTATICAS Each long ray represents 1000 meters of oblique distance the target. Each short ray represents 250 meters of oblique distance the target. Once blocado, still can be moved pipper so it is important to send the missile before llegemos to the minimum range and to continue making the adjustment final or, in any case, continue moving pipper if the objective is movable.


It is important to remember that when reaching the minimum range of firing the heavy arc of pipper disappears. In the two following images the launching sequence is seen. The left it is observed that we are arriving at the minimum range, but since already we have located correctly pipper with the cursor, is the moment for sending the missile. The right it is seen how once sent the missile we must continue moving pipper to maintain it upon the objectives, since these are movable:


The ground attack with tube or rockets does not have greater problem than the one to make an approach to the stabilized objective such and as we have commented before. That yes, we must activate the laser (key "Or") so that the indication of pipper is the correct one (the green light of warning will ignite). When we are in launching rank will ignite another red light of warning and, in addition, the outer circle of pipper will indicate the oblique distance to us: Way of air-air attack Once eliminated the terrestrial objectives, we are going to finish to the work demolishing both helicopters that are in the zone. For it, we happened to the air-air way and we verified in the panel of arms that we have both selected short-range missiles which we carried for self-defense:


For the rocket attack it is enough with locating the target visually, to blocar it with the key "TAB" and to hope to be in rank before shooting. The indication of range provides us two sources: the red light of warning in the base of the HUD that ignites when entering rank, and the outer circle of pipper (as already we said previously, short the long rays represent 1000m and 250m). The attack with tube is equal of simple, the important thing, obvious, is to maneuver to obtain a good firing position. In the image of the left a Hind is seen that we have blocked with our missiles and to the right a demolition with tube:


In summary, in spite of being a simulator that is not centered in an only airplane, we can be calm because LOMAC seems that it is going to as much follow the tradition of the series Flanker in the attention the models of flight like in the modelización of systems. The cabin indicators are so trustworthy and precise as usual in Flanker, allowing a complete navigation without raising the Vista of the panel. On the other hand, the panel of arms allows to know in every moment the precise situation our offensive capability and defensive, replacing perfectly the digital indicators of more modern airplanes.


We hoped that with this small article we have opened the desire to you to less pilot one of the airplanes known between which it presents/displays LOMAC, but that for that reason does not stop being an impressive machine of attack with a tube whose destructive power will astonish more than one. Now the question is... Su-25 or A-10? To you it will be called on to you to choose time soon (we cross the fingers).

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Guest MrMudd

My eyes went fuzzy doing the google translation and adding paragraph breaks..Its been a long night.


Hopefully you folks well be more enlightned to this upcomeing simulation.

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