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OffMapAirbase; how to determine (negative) coordinates?

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I am working on a surprise terrain remake, which I am planning to release shorty. I still need to finetune things here and there.

I added Off Map Airbases (pretty much like in the IcelandNA stock terrain). However, I have no idea how to determine with accuracy the values for coordinates. In the stock IcelandNA terrain. I noticed that various negative coordinates have neen used. How to determine those? gerwin's mighty TFDtool shows positive coordinates in detail, but if I place the cursor outside the terrain limits (in the surrounding black area, so to speak), it simply shows the values -1,-1.


Any clues or ideas? It would speed up development and terrain's release. All help is much appreciated!

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Hmm, pity. Well, doesn't matter, surprise is about to be released as is!

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I Think I Calibrated A Google Reference Grid For My GermanyCE Map And Then Plotted The Reference Points For Off Map Approach Points But I Am Way Beyond Community Standards Convention Plots You Must Test What Your Individual Systems Will Support.

Typical Campaign Setup

October 15, 1990. With The Fall Of The Berlin Wall And The Signing Of The Reunification Treaty There Is
Widespread Revolt Among Soviet High Commands To Reverse The Current State Of Affairs In The Warsaw Pact
Nations. Under The Guise Of Glasnost And Perestroika Boris Yeltsin And Gennadi Yanayev Overthrow Current
Prime Minister Gorbachev And Bring All Western Theatre Shock Armys To Complete Alert Levels.

Fearing A Repeat Of The Czechoslovakia Invasion In 1968 NATO Commands Scramble To Activate REFORGER
Elements To Defend NATO Members. United Kingdom Enacts Queens Order Two And Quickly Assembles Her Forces.
France Although No Longer A Formal Member Of NATO Promises Support And A Task Force Screen For REFORGER
Convoys.Sweden Although Neutral Declares It Will Defend Its Baltic Sea Approaches.


CampaignName=901015 Reforger Red October
Force001=NATO Forces
Force002=Warsaw Pact Forces


TheaterName=Central Europe
Location001=West Germany
Location002=East Germany
Location006=East Berlin
Location012=West Berlin
Location014=North Sea
Location015=Baltic Sea
Location016=United Kingdom


Name=Ostrov Air Base

Name=Machulishchi Air Base

Name=Tartu Air Base

Name=Bykhov Air Base

Name=Bobruisk Air Base

Name=Baranovichi Air Base

Name=Balbasovo Air Base

Name=Soltsy-2 Air Base

Name=Zyabrovka Air Base

Name=Siauliai Air Base


Name=Lakenheath Air Base

Name=Upper Heyford Air Base

Name=Mildenhall Air Base

Name=Alconbury Air Base

Name=Scampton Air Base

Name=Waddington Air Base


Depicts A Conflict When NATO And CSSR Were At Height Of Their Powers.

//---- Soviet Air Force Units (New Air Bases Added Update Locations)

31 GvIAP       MiG-29            Alt-Lönnewitz Airbase,East Germany          (Sqd Size 32)
33 IAP         MiG-29            Wittstock Airbase,East Germany              (Sqd Size 32)
35 IAP         MiG-29            Zerbst Airbase,East Germany                 (Sqd Size 32)
73 GvIAP       MiG-29            Köthen Airbase,East Germany                 (Sqd Size 32)
85 GvIAP       MiG-29            Merseburg Airbase,East Germany              (Sqd Size 32)
114 IAP        MiG-29            Milowice Airbase,Czechoslovakia             (Sqd Size 32)

159 GvIAP      Su-27             Kluczewo Airbase,Poland                     (Sqd Size 32)
582 IAP        Su-27             Chojna Airbase,Poland                       (Sqd Size 32)

773 IAP        MiG-29            Pütnitz Airbase,East Germany                (Sqd Size 32)
787 IAP        MiG-29            Finow Airbase,East Germany                  (Sqd Size 32)

833 IAP        MiG-23MLD         Altes Lager Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 32)
871 IAP        MiG-23MLD         Babimost Airbase,Poland                     (Sqd Size 32)

968 IAP        MiG-29            Altenburg-Nobitz Airbase,East Germany       (Sqd Size 32)

19 GvAPIB      MiG-27M           Rechlin Larz Airbase,East Germany           (Sqd Size 32)

20 GvAPIB      Su-17M4           Gross Dölln Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 32)

296 APIB       MiG-27D           Grossenhain Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 24)

559 APIB       MiG-27K           Finsterwalde Airbase,East Germany           (Sqd Size 32)

730 APIB       Su-17M4           Neuruppin Airbase,East Germany              (Sqd Size 32)

911 APIB       MiG-27K           Brand Airbase,East Germany                  (Sqd Size 32)

3 BAP          Su-24             Kryzwan Airbase,Poland                      (Sqd Size 24)

42 GvBAP       Su-24M            Zagan Airbase,Poland                        (Sqd Size 24)
89 BAP         Su-24M            Zagan Airbase,Poland                        (Sqd Size 24)

121 GvTBAP     Tu-22K            Machulishchi Air Base,Belarus (off-map)     (Sqd Size 24)

132 TBAP       Tu-22M3           Tartu Air Base,Estonia (off-map)            (Sqd Size 24)
170 GvTBAP     Tu-22M3           Bykhov Air Base,Belarus (off-map)           (Sqd Size 24)
200 GvTBAP     Tu-22M3           Bobruisk Air Base,Belarus (off-map)         (Sqd Size 24)

203 GvTBAP     Tu-22K            Baranovichi Air Base,Belarus (off-map)      (Sqd Size 24)

402 TBAP       Tu-22M3           Balbasovo Air Base,Belarus (off-map)        (Sqd Size 24)
840 TBAP       Tu-22M3           Soltsy-2 Air Base,Russia (off-map)          (Sqd Size 24)

357 OShAP      Su-25             Brandis Airbase,East Germany                (Sqd Size 32)
368 OShAP      Su-25             Tutow-Demmin Airbase,East Germany           (Sqd Size 32)

11 ORAP        Su-24MR           Welzow Airbase,East Germany                 (Sqd Size 32)

164 ORAP       MiG-25RB          Kryzwan Airbase,Poland                      (Sqd Size 12)

290 ORAP       Tu-22P            Zyabrovka Air Base,Belarus (off-map)        (Sqd Size 12)

294 ORAP       Su-17M3R          Allstedt Airbase,East Germany               (Sqd Size 12)

392 ORAP       Tu-95RT           Ostrov Air Base,Russia (off-map)            (Sqd Size 12)

931 GvORAP     MiG-25RB          Werneuchen Airbase,East Germany             (Sqd Size 12)

117 ODRAO      Il-76MD           Siauliai Air Base,Lithuania (off-map)       (Sqd Size 6)

144 ODRAO      A-50/Il-76MD      Siauliai Air Base,Lithuania (off-map)       (Sqd Size 6)

145 ODRAO      Il-38             Siauliai Air Base,Lithuania (off-map)       (Sqd Size 6)

//---- Soviet AVMF Units

100 KIAP.1st AE      Su-27K     Qt16 (Kuznetsov)

100 KIAP.2nd AE      MiG-29K    Qt16 (Kuznetsov)

100 KIAP.3RD AE      Su-25UTG   Qt16 (Kuznetsov)

279 OKShAP           Yak-38     Qt16 (Kiev)

299 OKShAP           Yak-38     Qt16 (Gorshkov)

38  OKPLVP           Ka-27/29   Qt8

830 OKPLVP           Ka-27/29   Qt8

745 OKPLVP           Ka-27/29   Qt8

//---- Poland Air Force Units

1. PLM-OPK "Warszawa"         MiG-29A               Poznan-Krzesiny Airbase,Poland   (Sqd Size 24)

2. PLM "Krakow"               MiG-21MF              Kolobrzeg Airbase,Poland         (Sqd Size 32)

9. PLM "Torun"                MiG-21MF/bis          Zegrze-Pomorskie Airbase,Poland  (Sqd Size 32)

10. PLM-OPK                   MiG-21PFM             Szprotawa Airbase,Poland         (Sqd Size 32)

11. PLM-OPK "Brandenburski"   MiG-21MF/bis          Szprotawa Airbase,Poland         (Sqd Size 32)

28. PLM-OPK "Koszalin"        MiG-23MF              Slupsk Airbase,Poland            (Sqd Size 32)

34. PLM-OPK                   MiG-21MF/bis          Slupsk Airbase,Poland            (Sqd Size 32)

39. PLM                       MiG-21PFM (deactivated 1987)

41. PLM                       MiG-21MF              Zegrze-Pomorskie Airbase,Poland  (Sqd Size 32)

62. PLM-OPK "Poznan"          MiG-21MF/bis          Poznan-Krzesiny Airbase,Poland   (Sqd Size 32)

6. PLM-B "Oposkie"            Su-22M4K              Pila Airbase,Poland              (Sqd Size 32)

8. PLM-B                      Su-22M4K              Miroslawiec Airbase,Poland       (Sqd Size 32)

40. PLM-B                     Su-22M4K              Pila Airbase,Poland              (Sqd Size 32)

3. LPSz-B                     Su-7BKL/BM            Pila Airbase,Poland              (Sqd Size 32)

45. LPSz-B                    Su-20 (K)             Babimost Airbase,Poland          (Sqd Size 12)

61. LPSz-B                    Su-20 ©             Pila Airbase,Poland              (Sqd Size 12)

7. PLBR                       Su-20R ©            Poznan-Krzesiny Airbase,Poland   (Sqd Size 24)

32. PLRT                      MiG-21R/RF            Szprotawa  Airbase,Poland        (Sqd Size 32)

58. LPSz                      Lim-6/bis/MiG-17PF    Pila Airbase,Poland              (Sqd Size 32)

66. LSz                       Lim-6/bis/MiG-17PF    Pila Airbase,Poland              (Sqd Size 32)

(Helo Units)

1 PVA Rgt      Mi-8/24        (Sqd Size 12)

2 PVA Rgt      Mi-8/24        (Sqd Size 12)

3 PVA Rgt      Mi-8/24        (Sqd Size 12)

//---- EGermany Air Force Units

JG 1 "Fritz Schmenkel"                    MiG-21MF   Holzdorf Airbase,East Germany   (Sqd Size 32)

JG 2 "Juri Gagarin"                       MiG-21MF   Neubrandenburg Airbase,East Germany  Size 32)

JG 3 "Wladimir Komarow"                   MiG-29A    Preschen Airbase,East Germany   (Sqd Size 24)

JG 7 "Wilhelm Pieck"                      MiG-21MF (deactivated 1989)

JG 8 "Hermann Matern"                     MiG-21bis  Marxwalde Airbase,East Germany  (Sqd Size 32)

JG 9 "Heinrich Rau"                       MiG-23ML   Peenemünde Airbase,East Germany (Sqd Size 32)

JBG 37 "Klement Gottwald"                 MiG-23BN   Drewitz Airbase,East Germany    (Sqd Size 24)

JBG 77 "Gebhardt Leberecht von Blücher"   Su-22M4K   Laage Airbase,East Germany      (Sqd Size 32)

MFG 28 "Paul Wieczorek"                   Su-22M4K   Laage Airbase,East Germany      (Sqd Size 32)

TAFS 47                                   MiG-21R    Preschen Airbase,East Germany   (Sqd Size 24)

TAFS 87                                   MiG-21R    Drewitz Airbase,East Germany    (Sqd Size 24)

JFAG 15 "Heinz Kapelle"                   MiG-21PFM  Rothenburg Airbase,East Germany (Sqd Size 32)

JFAG 25 "Leander Ratz"                    L-39ZO     Bautzen Airbase,East Germany    (Sqd Size 24)

FDK 33                                    L-39ZO     Peenemünde Airbase,East Germany (Sqd Size 24)

(Helo Units)

34 GDR Rgt      Mi-8/24        (Sqd Size 24)

57 GDR Rgt      Mi-8/24        (Sqd Size 24)

//---- Czechoslovakia Air Force Units

1. SLP "Zvolensky"        MiG-23ML        Budejovice Airbase,Czechoslovakia   (Sqd Size 32)

5. SLP                    MiG-21MF        Dobrany Airbase,Czechoslovakia      (Sqd Size 32)

8. SLP                    MiG-21PFM       Brno Airbase,Czechoslovakia         (Sqd Size 32)

9. SLP                    MiG-21MF        Bechyne Airbase,Czechoslovakia      (Sqd Size 32)

11. SLP "Invazni"         MIG-29A         Zatec Airbase,Czechoslovakia        (Sqd Size 24)

6. SBoLP                  Su-22           Namest Airbase,Czechoslovakia       (Sqd Size 32)

20. SBoLP "Biskajsky"     Su-22M4K        Namest Airbase,Czechoslovakia       (Sqd Size 32)

28. SBoLP "Tesinsky"      MiG-23BN        Cáslav Airbase,Czechoslovakia       (Sqd Size 32)

30. BILP "Ostravsky"      Su-25K          Pardubice Airbase,Czechoslovakia    (Sqd Size 32)

47. PZLP "Atlanticky"     Su-22M          Kralove Airbase,Czechoslovakia      (Sqd Size 32)

82. SSLT                  MiG-21MF        Pardubice Airbase,Czechoslovakia    (Sqd Size 32)

1. LSP                    MiG-21MF        Namest Airbase,Czechoslovakia       (Sqd Size 32)

2. LSP                    L-39C           Brno Airbase,Czechoslovakia         (Sqd Size 32)

3. LSP                    L-39C           Brno Airbase,Czechoslovakia         (Sqd Size 32)

(Helo Units)

1 CVA Rgt      Mi-8/24        (Sqd Size 18)

4 CVA Rgt      Mi-8/24        (Sqd Size 18)

//---- Soviet Air Force Units Follow On Units

(Regional Reinforcement And Mobilization Routes Ukraine In Neutral Position)

(Northern Front Baltic Pass Through)
(Central Front Belarus Pass Through)
(Southern Front Ukraine Neutral,Hungary,Romania,Bulgaria Hold In Place)

4th Guards Novgorodskiy Bomber Aviation Regiment

4 GvBAP        Su-24M         LOC Russia          (Sqd Size 24)

67th Independent Bomber Aviation Regiment

67 OBAP        Su-24M         LOC Russia          (Sqd Size 24)

305th Bomber Aviation Regiment

305 BAP        Su-24M         LOC Russia          (Sqd Size 24)

321st Bomber Aviation Regiment

321 BAP        Su-24M         LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 24)

497th Bomber Aviation Regiment

497 BAP        Su-24M         LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 24)

668th Bomber Aviation Regiment

668 BAP        Su-24M         LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 24)

722nd Bomber Aviation Regiment

722 BAP        Su-24M         LOC Russia          (Sqd Size 24)

953rd Bomber Aviation Regiment

953 BAP        Su-24M         LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 24)

53rd Guards Stalingradskiy Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment

53 GvAPIB      MiG-27K        LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 32)

54th Guards Kerchenskiy Fighter Aviation Regiment

54 GvIAP       Su-27          LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 32)

66th Independent Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment

66 OAPIB       Su-17M3        LOC Russia          (Sqd Size 32)

236th Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment

236 APIB       MiG-27K        LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 32)

372nd Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment

372 APIB       MiG-27K        LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 32)

899th Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment

899 APIB       MiG-27D        LOC Estonia         (Sqd Size 32)

846th Independent Guards Klaypedskiy Maritime Assault Aviation Regiment

846 GvOShAP    Su-17M3        LOC Russia          (Sqd Size 32)

151st Independent Aviation Regiment for Electronic Warfare

151 ORAE       Yak-28PP       LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 24)

927th Fighter Aviation Regiment

927 IAP        MiG-29         LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 32)

116th Guards Radomskiy Bomber Aviation Regiment

116 GvBAP      Su-24M         LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 24)

206th Independent Assault Aviation Regiment

206 OShAP      Su-25          LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 32)

378th Independent Assault Aviation Regiment

378 OShAP      Su-25          LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 32)

397th Independent Assault Aviation Regiment

397 OShAP      Su-25          LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 32)

10th Independent Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment

10 ORAP        MiG-25RB       LOC Belarus         (Sqd Size 12)

//---- Soviet Helicopter Regiments

55 OVP         Mi-8/24        Kolobrzeg Airbase,Poland                (Sqd Size 32)
172 OVP        Mi-8/24        Parchim Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 32)
178 OVP        Mi-8/24        Stendal Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 32)
225 OVP        Mi-8/24        Allstedt Airbase,East Germany           (Sqd Size 24)
238 OVP        Mi-8/24        LOC Czechoslovakia                      (Sqd Size 32)
239 GvOVP      Mi-8           Oranienburg Airbase,East Germany        (Sqd Size 32)
336 OVP        Mi-8/24        Erfurt Airbase,East Germany             (Sqd Size 32)
337 OVP        Mi-8/24        Mahlwinkel Airbase,East Germany         (Sqd Size 32)
439 OVP        Mi-8/24        Parchim Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 32)
440 OVP        Mi-8/24        Stendal Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 32)
485 OVP        Mi-8/24        Brandis Airbase,East Germany            (Sqd Size 32)
486 OVP        Mi-8/24        Altes Lager Airbase,East Germany        (Sqd Size 24)
487 OVP        Mi-8/24        Gross Dölln Airbase,East Germany        (Sqd Size 24)
688 OVP        Mi-8           LOC Poland (deactivated 1989)



(Fwd Deployed From UK)-(FRG)
78TFS A-10   (Sqd Size 18)  Sembach Airbase,FRG
91TFS A-10   (Sqd Size 18)  Leipheim Airbase,FRG
92TFS A-10   (Sqd Size 18)  Nörvenich Airbase,FRG
509TFS A-10  (Sqd Size 18)  Ahlhorn Airbase,FRG
511TFS A-10  (Sqd Size 18)  Ahlhorn Airbase,FRG
1TRS RF-4C   (Sqd Size 18)

(Upper Heyford,UK)
55TFS F-111E   (Sqd Size 24)
77TFS F-111E   (Sqd Size 24)
79TFS F-111E   (Sqd Size 24)
42ECS EF-111A  (Sqd Size 18)
43ECS EC-130H Compass Call  (Sqd Size 6)

492TFS F-111F  (Sqd Size 18)
493TFS F-111F  (Sqd Size 18)
494TFS F-111F  (Sqd Size 18)
495TFS F-111F  (Sqd Size 18)

(Mildenhall,UK)-(Fwd Deployed From US)
10ACCS EC-135     (Sqd Size 4)
69BS B-52G (US)   (Sqd Size 16)  42/407 ARS KC-135A (US)          (Sqd Size 6)
668BS B-52G (US)  (Sqd Size 16)  41 ARS KC-135A (US)              (Sqd Size 6)
13BS B-1B (US)    (Sqd Size 18)  ?
46BS B-1B (US)    (Sqd Size 18)  905 ARS KC-135A (US)             (Sqd Size 6)
(TAC SPT)  344/911 ARS KC-10A (US)-(From Seymour Johnson AFB,NC)  (Sqd Size 6)

(Alconbury,UK)-(Fwd Deployed From US)
95RS TR-1A         (Sqd Size 12)
17SRW SR-71 (US)   (Sqd Size 6)
4450TS F-117 (US)  (Sqd Size 12)
4452TS F-117 (US)  (Sqd Size 12)

1NAEWF  E-3A Sentry  (Sqd Size 4)
2NAEWF  E-3A Sentry  (Sqd Size 4)
3NAEWF  E-3A Sentry  (Sqd Size 4)

22TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)
53TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)
535TFS F-15C  (Sqd Size 24)

10TFS F-16C Block 25   (Sqd Size 24)
313TFS F-16C Block 25  (Sqd Size 24)
496TFS F-16C Block 25  (Sqd Size 24)

23TFS F-16C, F-4G Wild Weasel  (Sqd Size 12)
81TFS F-16C, F-4G Wild Weasel  (Sqd Size 12)
480TFS F-16C, F-4G Wild Weasel (Sqd Size 12)

512TFS F-16C Block 30  (Sqd Size 24)
516TFS F-16C Block 30  (Sqd Size 24)
37TAS C-130E  (Sqd Size 16)

32TFS F-15C  (Sqd Size 24)

38TRS RF-4C  (Sqd Size 24)

7SOS MC-130  (Sqd Size 4)

(Fwd Deployed From US)-(FRG)

6ACCS EC-135  (Sqd Size 4)

16TRS RF-4C   (Sqd Size 18)

17TFS F-16A   (Sqd Size 24)
19TFS F-16A   (Sqd Size 24)
30TFS F-16A   (Sqd Size 24)

27TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)
71TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)
94TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)

58TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)
59TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)
60TFS F-15C   (Sqd Size 24)

68TFS F-16C  (Sqd Size 24)
69TFS F-16C  (Sqd Size 24)
70TFS F-16C  (Sqd Size 24)

74TFS A-10    (Sqd Size 18)
75TFS A-10    (Sqd Size 18)
76TFS A-10    (Sqd Size 18)

306TFS F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)
307TFS F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)
308TFS F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)
309TFS F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)

334TFS F-4E   (Sqd Size 24)
335TFS F-4E   (Sqd Size 24)
336TFS F-15E  (Sqd Size 24)

353TFS A-10   (Sqd Size 18)
355TFS A-10   (Sqd Size 18)
356TFS A-10   (Sqd Size 18)

138TFS F-16A Block 15 w(Pave Claw)  (Sqd Size 18)

146TFS A-7D  (Sqd Size 18)
149TFS A-7D  (Sqd Size 18)

[uSN]-(Carrier Units)

Carrier Air Wing One (CVW1) – CV66 USS America (82-96)
VF33 “Starfighters” F-14           (Sqd Size 12)
VF102 “Diamondbacks” F-14          (Sqd Size 12)
VA85 “Black Falcons” A-6E, KA-6D   (Sqd Size 10)/(Sqd Size 4)
VFA82 “Marauders” F/A-18C          (Sqd Size 12)
VFA86 “Sidewinders” F/A-18C        (Sqd Size 12)
VAQ137 “Rooks” EA-6B ICAP II       (Sqd Size 4)
VS32 “Maulers” S-3B                (Sqd Size 10)
VAW123 “Screwtops” E-2C            (Sqd Size 4)
HS11 “Dragonslayers” SH-3          (Sqd Size 6)

(CVW7) – CVN69 USS Eisenhower (79-92)
VF142 “Ghostriders” F-14A+              (Sqd Size 12)
VF143 “Pukin’ Dogs” F-14A+              (Sqd Size 12)
VA34 “Blue Blasters” A-6E, KA-6D        (Sqd Size 10)/(Sqd Size 4)
VFA131 “Wildcats” F-18A, F-18C          (Sqd Size 12)
VFA136 “Knight Hawks” F/A-18A, F/A-18C  (Sqd Size 12)
VAW121 “Blue Tails” E-2C                (Sqd Size 4)
VAQ140 “Patriots” EA-6B                 (Sqd Size 4)
VS31 “Topcats” S-3B                     (Sqd Size 10)
HS5 “Nightdippers” SH-3H                (Sqd Size 6)

(CVW8) – CVN71 USS Theodore Roosevelt (88-95)
VF41 “Black Aces” F-14A                      (Sqd Size 12)
VF84 “Jolly Rogers” F-14A                    (Sqd Size 12)
VA35 “Black Panthers” A-6E (to CVW17, 9/89)  (Sqd Size 10)
VA36 “Roadrunners” A-6E                      (Sqd Size 10)
VFA15 “Valions” F/A-18A                      (Sqd Size 10)
VFA87 “Golden Warriors” F/A-18A              (Sqd Size 10)
VAQ141 “Shadowhawks” EA-6                    (Sqd Size 4)
VAW124 “Bear Aces” E-2C                      (Sqd Size 4)
VS24 S-3A                                    (Sqd Size 10)
HS3 “Tridents” SH-3H                         (Sqd Size 6)

(CVW17) – CV60 USS Saratoga (82-94)
VF74 “Bedevilers” F-14A+    (Sqd Size 12)
VF103 “Sluggers” F-14A+     (Sqd Size 12)
VFA81 “Sunliners” F/A-18C   (Sqd Size 14)
VFA83 “Rampagers” F/A-18C   (Sqd Size 14)
VAQ132 “Scorpions” EA-6B    (Sqd Size 4)
VAW125 “Tiger Tails” E-2C   (Sqd Size 4)
VS30 “DiamondCutters” S-3A  (Sqd Size 10)
HS3 SH-3H                   (Sqd Size 6)

(USNR-Carrier Deployable Units)

VAQ209 “Star Warriors” EA-6A     (Sqd Size 4)
VAW78 “Fighting Escargots” E-2C  (Sqd Size 4)

HM18 RH-53D         (Sqd Size 6)
HM14 MH-53E,RH-53D  (Sqd Size 6)

[uSMC]-(Carrier Deployable Units)

VMFA115 “Silver Eagles” F/A-18  (Sqd Size 12)
VMFA122 “Crusaders” F/A-18      (Sqd Size 12)
VMFA251 “Thunderbolts” F/A-18   (Sqd Size 12)
VMFA312 “Checkertails” F/A-18   (Sqd Size 12)
VMFA451 “Warlords” F/A-18       (Sqd Size 12)

VMAQ2 “Panthers” EA-6B  (Sqd Size 4)

VMA332 “Polka Dots” A-6E (Sqd Size 10)
VMA533 “Hawks” A-6E      (Sqd Size 10)

VMA223 “Bulldogs” AV-8B       (Sqd Size 12)
VMA231 “Ace of Spades” AV-8B  (Sqd Size 12)
VMA331 “Bumblebees” AV-8B     (Sqd Size 12)
VMA542 “Flying Tigers” AV-8B  (Sqd Size 12)

(Fwd Deployed From US)-(FRG) (Land Deployed-Nordholz-Eggebeck-Schleswig-Jagel)

VMFA321 “Hell’s Angels” F-4S      (Sqd Size 12)

VMA131 “Diamondbacks” A-4M        (Sqd Size 14)
VMA322 “Fighting Gamecocks” A-4M  (Sqd Size 14)

VMGR234 “Rangers” KC-130F,KC-130T  (Sqd Size 12)
VMGR452 “Yankees” KC-130T          (Sqd Size 12)

(Carrier,Convoy Deployable Units)

HMLA167 “Warriors” AH-1T,UH-1N     (Sqd Size 12)
HMLA269 “Gunrunners” AH-1T, UH-1N  (Sqd Size 12)
HML771 “Hummers” UH-1N (USMCR)     (Sqd Size 6)

HMH362 “Ugly Angels” CH-53D            (Sqd Size 12)
HMH461 “Sea Stallions” CH-53E, CH-53D  (Sqd Size 12)
HMH464 “Condors” CH-53E                (Sqd Size 12)
HMH772 “Hustler” CH-53A                (Sqd Size 12)

(US-Army USMC Headers CarrierBased=FALSE)

2-227AHB AH1F   (Sqd Size 18)
3-227AHB AH64A  (Sqd Size 18)

2-4AHB AH1F  (Sqd Size 18)
3-4AHB AH1F  (Sqd Size 18)

4-11ACS AH1F  (Sqd Size 24)

5-6ACS AH64A  (Sqd Size 18)

2-1AHB AH1F   (Sqd Size 18)
3-1AHB AH64A  (Sqd Size 18)

2-3AHB AH1S  (Sqd Size 18)
3-3AHB AH1S  (Sqd Size 18)

4-2ACS AH64A  (Sqd Size 12)

4-229AHB AH64A  (Sqd Size 18)
2-6ACS AH64A    (Sqd Size 18)


9RAF Tornado GR Mk 1 (Wild-Weasel) (Sqd Size 12)
14RAF Tornado GR Mk 1              (Sqd Size 12)
17RAF Tornado GR Mk 1              (Sqd Size 12)
31RAF Tornado GR Mk 1              (Sqd Size 12)

3RAF Harrier GR Mk5  (Sqd Size 16)
4RAF Harrier GR Mk7  (Sqd Size 16)

2RAF Tornado GR Mk 1 (Recon) (Sqd Size 12)
15RAF Tornado GR Mk 1        (Sqd Size 12)
16RAF Tornado GR Mk 1        (Sqd Size 12)
20RAF Tornado GR Mk 1        (Sqd Size 12)

19RAF Phantom FGR Mk 2  (Sqd Size 12)
92RAF Phantom FGR Mk 2  (Sqd Size 12)

51RAF Elint Nimrod R1              (Sqd Size 4)
8RAF E-3D (Sentry AEW.Mk 1 AWACS)  (Sqd Size 6)

(Fwd Deployed From UK)-(FRG)
6RAF  Jaguar GR Mk 1         (Sqd Size 16)
41RAF Jaguar GR Mk 1 (Recon) (Sqd Size 16)
54RAF Jaguar GR Mk 1         (Sqd Size 16)

(Helo Units)

651Sq Lynx  (Sqd Size 8)
652Sq Lynx  (Sqd Size 8)

661Sq Gazelle  (Sqd Size 12)

653Sq Lynx  (Sqd Size 8)
662Sq Lynx  (Sqd Size 8)
663Sq Lynx  (Sqd Size 8)

654Sq Lynx  (Sqd Size 8)
659Sq Lynx  (Sqd Size 8)

669Sq Gazelle  (Sqd Size 12)


800Sq Sea Harrier FRS. Mk 1  (Sqd Size 12)
801Sq Sea Harrier FRS. Mk 1  (Sqd Size 12)
899Sq Sea Harrier FRS. Mk 1  (Sqd Size 12) (OCU-Unit)

814sq Sea King HAS. Mk 5/6  (Sqd Size 6)
820sq Sea King HAS. Mk 5/6  (Sqd Size 6)

815sq Lynx HAS. Mk 3  (Sqd Size 6)
829sq Lynx HAS. Mk 3  (Sqd Size 6)


AG51 RF-4E  (Sqd Size 36)

AG52 RF-4E  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG31 Tornado IDS  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG32 Tornado IDS  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG33 Tornado IDS  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG34 Tornado IDS  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG35 F-4F  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG36 F-4F  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG38 Tornado IDS  (Sqd Size 24)

JBG39 Tornado IDS  (Sqd Size 24)

LwVR1 F-104G (Kommando)  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG41 Alpha Jet A  (Sqd Size 48)  (ex JBG-37 later Tornado IDS)
JBG42 Alpha Jet A  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG43 Alpha Jet A  (Sqd Size 48)

JBG44 Alpha Jet A  (Sqd Size 36)

JBG49 Alpha Jet A  (Sqd Size 48)

JG71 F-4F  (Sqd Size 36)

JG74 F-4F  (Sqd Size 36)

LTG61 C.160D Transall  (Sqd Size 24)

LTG62 C.160D Transall  (Sqd Size 24)

(Helo Units)

HfRgt15 CH-53G  (Sqd Size 32)

HfRgt16 Bo-105 w/HOT  (Sqd Size 48)

HfRgt25 CH-53G  (Sqd Size 32)

HfRgt26 Bo-105 w/HOT  (Sqd Size 48)

HfRgt35 CH-53G  (Sqd Size 32)

HfRgt36 Bo-105 w/HOT  (Sqd Size 48)

HfRgt6 Bo-105 w/HOT  (Sqd Size 18)


MFG1 Tornado  (Sqd Size 24)

MFG2 Tornado  (Sqd Size 24)

MFG3 Br. 1151 Atlantic  (Sqd Size 18)

MFG5 Seaking Mk. 41  (Sqd Size 24)


2-1FAF Mirage 2000C  (Sqd Size 18)
2-2FAF Mirage 2000C  (Sqd Size 18)
2-3FAF Mirage 2000C  (Sqd Size 18)

3-1FAF Mirage IIIE  (Sqd Size 18)
3-2FAF Mirage IIIE  (Sqd Size 18)
3-3FAF Mirage IIIE  (Sqd Size 18)

St Dizier-Robinson,France (Attack-NUC)
7-1FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 16)
7-2FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 16)
7-3FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 16)
7-4FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 16)

94-2FAF Mirage IV  (Sqd Size 8)

Toul-Rosieres,France (Attack)
11-1FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 18)
11-2FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 18)
11-3FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 18)
11-4FAF Jaguar  (Sqd Size 18)

13-1FAF Mirage IIIBE  (Sqd Size 18)
13-2FAF Mirage IIIE   (Sqd Size 18)
13-3FAF Mirage 5F     (Sqd Size 18)
13-4FAF Mirage 5F     (Sqd Size 18)

Strasbourg-Entzheim,France (Recon)
33-1FAF F1-CR  (Sqd Size 18)
33-2FAF F1-CR  (Sqd Size 18)
33-3FAF F1-CR  (Sqd Size 18)

(Helo Units)

12GHL  Gazelle w/HOT  (Sqd Size 30)

2RHC  Gazelle w/HOT  (Sqd Size 16)

67-2EH  Alouette II/III  (Sqd Size 6)-Security-SAR

5-128MO Magister  (Sqd Size 2)-Station Flight


12F F-8E(FN)  (Sqd Size 8)
14F F-8E(FN)  (Sqd Size 8)

11F Super Etendard  (Sqd Size 16)
17F Super Etendard  (Sqd Size 16)

4F Br. 1050 Alize  (Sqd Size 12)
6F Br. 1050 Alize  (Sqd Size 12)

31F Lynx  (Sqd Size 12)
34F Lynx  (Sqd Size 12)


F10SwedAF J 35J Draken (Sqd 24)

F13SwedAF J 32E Lansen (ECM) (Sqd Detach 8)

F7SwedAF AJ 37 Viggen (QRF Airfield Sqd Detach 8)

F17SwedAF JA 37 Viggen (QRF Airfield Sqd Detach 8)


ESK727 F-16  (Sqd Size 16)
ESK730 F-16  (Sqd Size 16)

ESK725 F-35 Draken (QRF Airfield Sqd Detach 8)


306KLU  F-16A  (Sqd Size 18)
311KLU  F-16A  (Sqd Size 18)
312KLU  F-16A  (Sqd Size 18)

313KLU  F-16A  (Sqd Size 18)
315KLU  F-16A  (Sqd Size 18)

314KLU  NF-5A  (Sqd Size 18)

316KLU  NF-5A  (Sqd Size 18)

322KLU  F-16A  (Sqd Size 18)
323KLU  F-16A  (Sqd Size 18)

(Helo Units)

298GpLV  Alouette III  (Sqd Size 24)

299GpLV  Bo-105  (Sqd Size 30)

300GpLV  Alouette III  (Sqd Size 18)

(((Add-On Notes)))


Loc? Ship-Based de Kooij Off-Map
KLU7    Lynx  (Sqd Size 18)
KLU860  Lynx  (Sqd Size 18)

Loc? Land-Based Valkenburg Off-Map
KLU320  P-3C Orion  (Sqd Size 6)
KLU321  P-3C Orion  (Sqd Size 6)


349BAF  F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)
350BAF  F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)

1BAF  F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)
2BAF  F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)

8BAF   Mirage 5BA/BD     (Sqd Size 36)
42BAF  Mirage 5BR/BA/BD  (Sqd Size 24)

7BAF   Alpha Jet  (Sqd Size 16)
9BAF   Alpha Jet  (Sqd Size 16)
11BAF  Alpha Jet  (Sqd Size 16)
33BAF  Alpha Jet  (Sqd Size 16)

23BAF  F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)
31BAF  F-16A  (Sqd Size 24)

(Helo Units)

16ALFT  Alouette II  (Sqd Size 12)

17ALFT  Alouette II  (Sqd Size 12)

18ALFT  Alouette II  (Sqd Size 12)


Söllingen,West Germany
409CAF  CF-18  (Sqd Size 18)
421CAF  CF-18  (Sqd Size 18)
439CAF  CF-18  (Sqd Size 18)

(Helo Units)

8RCH  Lynx  (Sqd Size 24)


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for a REFORGER scenario, you should have more Lockheed heavy iron (C-5, -141B and -130B/E/H) bring folks from stateside. also would be a good use for airliners given the activation of the Civil Reserve Airlift Fleet, but you would need to make adjustments to get them in there.final observation (being a Soldier myself) is to add the US Army nation to the listings. just my two cents, looking forward to seeing this

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Apologies Didn't Want To Look Like Hijacking The Thread Just Wanted To Show The Use Of Google Overlays To Find Approx Positions For Airfields And Other Sites Of Interest.
Have Used Neg,Pos And Pos,Pos Positions But Have Not Tested Neg,Neg Southwest Approaches.
As For What I Am Working On I Share Tips And Tricks But Generally Do Not Upload Mostly Because Ive
Been Around A Long Time And Maintain A Neutral Position Between Clubs Using Material From Everybody
Sim HQ , Combat Ace , Skunkworks My Main Passion Always Being FSX.
But As You Can See There Is Data Out There Freely Available To All For Campaign Developement.





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Don't worry EMCON360!  You answered my question anyway, you didn't hijack the thread. BTW, Google Earth is what I primarily use for terrain making, as well as other sources of info.

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i see you're also using the SAM site KMZ!! That's thing is AMAZING!!!

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For Menrva Incase I Croak A White Paper On NK.


Air Force
 The air force became a separate service in 1948. The air force adapted Soviet and Chinese tactics and doctrine to reflect North Korea's situation, requirements, and available resources. Its primary mission is air defense of the homeland. Secondary missions include tactical air support to the army and the navy, transportation and logistic support, and insertion of special operations forces. A large force, the air force also can provide limited support to ground forces.
North Korea's pre-war airfields were destroyed and not repaired during the war. By the end of 1953 the Corps of Chinese Volunteers was withdrawn from Korea and KPA units took control of positions at 38th parallel. A major reorganization of all the KPA armed services began, accompanied by massive acquisitions of new weapons systems from the USSR. Some ten airfields were constructed for the NKAF at that time. In the 1961 USSR and KPDR signed the Treaty of Mutual Assistance and Military Cooperation with many additional secret protocols that even now are classified. In accordance with these protocols, in 1961-62 the NKAF received MiG-19 supersonic fighters and S-25 "Berkut" SAM's. The KPA received airborne and artillery chemical ordnance and began training for combat under chemical and radiation contamination conditions. After 1965 the North Koreans began receiving MiG-21F fighters and S-75 "Dvina" SAMs.
The Soviet and Chinese-made equipment the NKAF is armed with comprises mostly obsolete types that are not suitable for the modern combat environment. However by the beginning of the 1980's the NKAF began a new round of modernization: in addition to 150 MiG-21's, the NKAF received from the USSR a batch of 60 MiG-23P fighter-bombers and MiG-23ML close-support fighters and from China - 150 Q-5 Fantan ground attack planes. These elite 56th Guards and 57th Fighter Regiments are equipped with MiG-29 and MiG-23 and are based near Pyongyang to defend the capital.
 In 1992 the air force comprised about 1,620 aircraft and 70,000 personnel. At that time there were three air combat commands under the direct control of the Air Command at Chunghwa, one air division (the Eighth Air Division, probably headquartered at Rang) in the northeast, and the Civil Aviation Bureau under the State Administration Council. The three wings under the Air Force headquarters of the KPA each hade one fighter regiment, one bomber regiment, one An-2 aircraft regiment, one helicopter regiment, and one anti-aircraft rocket regiment. Each wing was capable of waging independent operations. The air combat commands, consisting of different mixes of fighters, bombers, transports, helicopters, reconnaissance aircraft, and surface-to- air missile (SAM) regiments, were created by integrating and reorganizing existing air divisions during the mid- to late 1980s. Decentralized command and control gave more authority to regional commands.
At the national level, air defense was once the responsibility of the Air Defense Command, a separate entity from the air force, but which probably was collocated with the Air Force Headquarters in P'yongyang. However, that function probably was transferred to the air force in the late 1980s. The air combat commands appear to have primary responsibility for integrated air defense and are organized with semiautomated warning and interception systems to control SAMs, interceptor aircraft, and air defense artillery units.
•The First Air Combat Command, in the northwest, probably headquartered at Kaech'n, is responsible for the west coast to the border with China, including P'yongyang.
•The Second Air Combat Command, headquartered at Toksan, covers the northeast and extends up the east coast to the Soviet border.
•The Third Air Combat Command, headquartered at Hwangju in the south, is responsible for the border with South Korea and the southernmost areas along the east and west coasts.

As of 1996 the North Korean air force consisted of six air divisions under the direct control of the national Air Command: three are composed of fighter wings, two of transportation wings, and one for fighter training.

North Korea has approximately seventy air bases, including jet and non-jet capable bases and emergency landing strips, with aircraft deployed to between twenty and thirty of them. The majority of tactical aircraft are concentrated at air bases around P'yongyang and in the southern provinces. P'yongyang can place almost all its military aircraft in hardened--mostly underground--shelters. North Korean aircraft are sheltered in underground hangars and plenty of runways are available. In the KPDR there is absolutely no private vehicle ownership but many highways with concrete surfaces and arched reinforced concrete tunnels (for example the superhighway linking Pyongyang with Wonsan), that in case of hostilities are sure to be used as military airfields. It thus seems highly improbable that the NKAF would be knocked out in one strike. North Korea deployed about fifty percent of its fighters in the front area which makes a possible surprise attack to all areas of South Korea. In 1990-91, North Korea activated four forward air bases near the DMZ, which increased its initial southward reach and decreased warning and reaction times for Seoul.
More than 420 fighters, bombers, transport planes, and helicopters were redeployed in October 1995, and more than 100 aircraft were moved forward to the three air bases near the DMZ. More than 20 Il-28 bombers were moved to Taetan which shortened their arrival time to Seoul from 30 minutes to 10 minutes. Over 80 MiG-17s redeployed to Nuchonri and Kuupri are able to attack Seoul in 6 minutes. By these redeployments North Korea intends to make a first strike with outdated MiG-17s and the second strike with mainstay fighters such as MiG-21s and Su-25s.

North Korea produces no aircraft itself, although it does produce spare parts for many of its aircraft. The small village named Tokhyon on the way to Uiju from Sinjuiju is the home to North Korea"s largest munitions factory that produces aircraft. There is another aircraft plant in a suburb of Ch"ongjin, North Hamgyong Province. But it is far smaller than the Tokhyon plant in its size and history.

 The North Korean aircraft fleet of Soviet and Chinese manufacture is primarily of 1950s and 1960s technology, with rudimentary avionics and limited weapons systems capability. In the mid- to late 1980s, the Soviet Union supplied a variety of a limited number of more modern all-weather air defense and ground attack aircraft. Most ground attack regiments have older model Soviet and Chinese light bombers and fighters with limited range and combat payloads.
 P'yongyang was rather late in recognizing the full potential of the helicopter. During the 1980s, the North Korean armed forces increased their helicopter inventory from about forty to about 300. In 1985 North Korea circumvented United States export controls to indirectly buy eighty-seven United Statesmanufactured civilian versions of the Hughes MD-500 helicopters before the United States government stopped further deliveries. Reports indicate that at least sixty of the helicopters delivered were modified as gunships. Because South Korea licenses and produces the MD-500 for use in its armed forces, the modified helicopters were useful in North Korea's covert or deceptive operations. The transport fleet has some Soviet transports from the 1950s and 1960s.
 The air force has a marginal capability for defending North Korean airspace and a limited ability to conduct air operations against South Korea. Its strengths are its large numbers of aircraft, a system of well-dispersed and well-protected air facilities, and an effective, if rudimentary, command and control system. Its weaknesses include limited flight training; forced reliance on outside sources for aircraft, most of its missiles, radars, and associated equipment; and maintenance problems associated with older aircraft. The effectiveness of ground training--on which the pilots heavily depend--is difficult to judge because there is no information on P'yongyang's acquisition or use of sophisticated flight simulators.
 Pilot proficiency is difficult to evaluate because it is crudely proportionate to hours and quality of flight time. Although the Republic of Korea Ministry of National Defense's Defense White Paper, 1990 states that flight training levels are 60 percent of South Korea's, other sources believe the figure is closer to 20 to 30 percent. Lower flight times are attributed to fuel shortages, a more conservative training philosophy, and perhaps a concern for older airframe life expectancies or maintenance infrastructure capacity. The training of pilots on the NKAF's most modern aircraft is much more significant than "seven flying hours per year" sometimes claimed in the West. But air crew are being trained in accordance with outdated procedures and, with lack of fuel, have very little experience.
 Operational thinking reflects both Soviet doctrine and the North Korean experience of heavy bombing during the Korean War. The result has been in reliance on air defense. Military industries, aircraft hangars, repair facilities, ammunition, fuel stores, and even air defense missile systems are placed underground or in hardened shelters. North Korea has an extensive interlocking, redundant nationwide air defense system that includes interceptor aircraft, early warning and ground-controlled intercept radars, SAMs, a large number of air defense artillery weapons, and barrage balloons.

Important military and industrial complexes are defended by antiaircraft artillery. Point defenses are supplemented by barrage balloons. North Korea has an exceptionally large number of antiaircraft sites. The largest concentration is along the DMZ and around major cities, military installations, and factories.
 The bulk of North Korean radars are older Soviet and Chinese models with vacuum-tube technology, which limits continuous operations. The overall early warning and ground controlled intercept system is susceptible to saturation and jamming by a sophisticated foe with state-of-the-art electronic warfare capabilities. Nevertheless, the multilayered, coordinated, mutually supporting air defense structure is a formidable deterrent to air attack. Overlapping coverage and redundancy make penetration of North Korean air defenses a challenge.

Air Force Order of Battle, 1992



Strength 70,000
Air combat commands 3
Air division 1
Interceptor regiments 12
Ground attack regiments
Il-28 3
Su-25/7 1
MiG-19/A-5 2
MiG-15/17 2
Transport regiments
An-2 6
Unspecified 6
Helicopter regiments 6
Total aircraft
Jets 760
Bombers 82
Transports 480
Helicopters 300
MiG-15/17, air-to-air and ground attack 310
MiG-19, air-to-air 60+
MiG-19/A-5, primarily ground attack 100+
MiG-21, air-to-air 160+
MiG-23, air-to-air 46
MiG-29, air-to-air 14
Su-7, primarily ground attack 20
Su-25, primarily ground attack 20
Il-28, primarily ground attack 82
An-2, transport 250+
An-24, transport 10
Unspecified transports and trainers 200+
Mi-2/4/8/17 helicopters 210+
MD-500 helicopters 87 

Sources and Resources

Saturday, June 12, 2010


The North Korean SAM Network



The Democratic People's Republic of Korea fields one of the most capable third-world strategic SAM networks on paper. However, despite the high concentration of strategic SAM batteries and EW sites, there are significant issues in the network which need to be addressed in the near future. If these issues are ignored, the DPRK will be placing itself at risk.


The DPRK's strategic SAM assets are subordinate to the Air Force. The Air Force operates a variety of Soviet-era equipment. The following strategic SAM systems are currently in service: S-75 (SA-2 GUIDELINE), S-125 (SA-3 GOA), and S-200 (SA-5 GAMMON).

EW Coverage

Thirty three active and one inactive EW sites provide the DPRK with early warning radar coverage, used for SAM system target acquisition and track handoff, and GCI control of fighter units. These EW sites are primarily consolidated in the southern half of the nation, providing substantial coverage of the capital and the DMZ. Identified EW radars operating in the DPRK are predominately Soviet-era systems, although the presence of a JY-8 (WALL RUST) radar indicates that Chinese hardware is also in use. How well the Chinese system integrates with the rest of the FSU-era equipment is not known, but it is potentially not a problem given that China operates a number of Soviet and Russian systems. The following systems have been identified in available imagery:

P-12/18 (SPOON REST)
P-35/37 (BAR LOCK)

The US DoD reports that the following radars are also in service, but they have not been identified in available imagery at this time:


The following image depicts the locations of identified EW radar sites in the DPRK:
The following image depicts a notional DPRK EW site. Most EW sites appear to be host to a single example of one radar type, in this case a P-14. Other radars, especially smaller units such as those of the P-12/18 series, may be present but not visible in available imagery. Alternatively, they may be held in reserve to expand the network when required, or may simply not be discovered yet. AAA sites, such as the battery seen here, are common at both EW and SAM sites to provide additional defense.
Interestingly, the only strategic SAM system which appears to possess an organic EW system is the S-200, with each battery containing a P-14 radar. The S-75 and S-125 batteries do not appear to field any organic EW elements, in which case they must rely on either the external network or the limited functionality of their engagement radars to provide target acquisition and track generation. It is possible that these SAM batteries do contain EW elements, but that they have not been located or are not visible in available imagery.

A further EW system available to the DPRK is the Ramona passive detection system. The advantage to the Ramona is that it does not radiate, allowing it to be relocated to complicate targeting with considerably more ease than a strategic SAM battery. The Ramona system has not been located in available imagery, but is believed to be a leftover Soviet system, emplaced and operated by the USSR.

SAM Coverage

There are currently fifty eight active strategic SAM sites located in the DPRK. The following image depicts the locations of these sites. S-75 sites are red, S-125 sites are light blue, and S-200 sites are purple. As can be seen, the overwhelming majority of the deployed strategic SAM assets are located along the DMZ and the coasts.
The following image depicts the overall SAM coverage provided by the identified DPRK strategic SAM sites. Using the same color scheme applied previously, SA-2 zones are red, S-125 zones are light blue, and S-200 zones are purple.
The S-75

There are currently forty six active S-75 sites inside of the DPRK, constituting the bulk of the strategic SAM force. According to SIPRI, a total of 45 S-75 Dvina systems were delivered to the DPRK from the USSR. 15 batteries were supplied between 1962 and 1964, with the remaining 30 batteries being supplied between 1966 and 1971. A total of 1950 missiles were reportedly supplied to arm the batteries. S-75 batteries are deployed to provide barrier air defense of the DPRK's coastlines and the DMZ, as well as coverage of the bulk of the DPRK's interior.

The following image depicts the coverage provided by the DPRK's active S-75 batteries:
The S-125

There are currently ten active S-125 sites inside of the DPRK. Seven batteries are positioned to defend the capital of Pyongyang, with the other three situated to defend the nuclear research center at Yongbyon. The DPRK operates the S-125M Neva-M variant, with SIPRI reporting that eight batteries were supplied between 1985 and 1986.

The following image depicts the coverage provided by the DPRK's active S-125 batteries:
Seven of the deployed S-125 batteries, six around Pyongyang and one near Yongbyon, are situated at sophisticated hardened facilities. These hardened sites contain three launch revetments for 5P73 4-rail launchers and a radar position for the RSN-125 (LOW BLOW) engagement radar. The launchers can be retracted into bunkers when not in use. Similarly, the engagement radar can be lowered into a bunker and protected by a retractable cover, which splits in half and slides open when the radar is exposed.

A hardened S-125 site near Pyongyang can be seen in the image below:
The S-200

There are currently two active S-200 sites inside of the DPRK. These sites are placed near the east and west coasts in the southern portion of the nation, allowing them to range far offshore and deep into the ROK. The S-200 represents the longest-range strategic SAM system in the DPRK's arsenal. Four S-200 batteries were supplied to the DPRK between 1987 and 1988, and two batteries are likely co-located at each location.

The following image depicts the coverage provided by the DPRK's active S-200 batteries:
As with the S-125, the DPRK employs hardened facilities for the S-200. Elevators are provided for the two 5N62 (SQUARE PAIR) engagement radars at each location allowing them to be stowed undergroudn when not in use, and hardened bunkers are provided for the 5P72 launch rails.

Inactive Sites

There are currently twenty nine identified inactive strategic SAM sites located in the DPRK. There are twenty seven S-75 sites and two S-125 sites. The bulk of these sites are located in the vicinity of Pyongyang. As such, they may represent facilities available for bolstering capital area air defenses during a time of conflict. They may also be employed as relocation facilities, complicating targeting of active batteries. Some inactive locations, notably those near the northwest border with China and near Kuum-ni on the northeastern coast, are situated in coverage gaps in the SAM network, suggesting that they may have been labeled as inactive when last imaged due to their assets being relocated for training or maintenance purposes.

The following image depicts the locations of inactive strategic SAM sites located in the DPRK:
Support Facilities

Interestingly, there are no identified support facilities related to the strategic SAM force in the DPRK. Given that the DPRK employs a great deal of hardened and underground facilities, this is not necessarily suprising. Many of these facilities are identified in other nations due to the identifiable presence of SAM components in imagery. If these facilities are kept hidden in the DPRK, then their identification would be extremely difficult. However, it should be assumed that such facilities do exist, even if they have not yet been located or conclusively identified. These facilities would provide maintenance functions, store missile reloads, and garrison surplus equipment for future deployment.


The DPRK appears to possess an intelligently designed, layered air defense network at first glance. S-75 sites are positioned to provide barrier air defense of the coastal and southern border regions, with the remaining S-75 and S-125 batteries bolstering inland defenses and protecting critical locations.

S-200 Coverage

Long-range air defense is provided by the DPRK's S-200 batteries. The S-200 is a significant threat to ISR and support aircraft operating in the theater, such as the USAF's U-2R based out of Osan AB in the ROK. The location and range of the S-200 would hold any such cooperative target at risk shortly following takeoff from most of the airfields in the ROK. Ergo, while the S-200 is not a serious threat to any non-cooperative, maneuverable targets such as fighter aircraft, it represents a significant problem for any potential aggressor.

Border Coverage

Many of the DPRK's S-75 batteries are positioned along the coastline and along the DMZ. These systems are placed to provide barrier air defense to deter any foreign intrusion into the DPRK's airspace. The majority of these systems are positioned to provide overlapping fields of fire to strengthen air defenses in these areas. The northern border with China and the northeastern border with Russia are left undefended, likely due to the DPRK not anticipating that either nation would be a party to hostilities against it.

Inland Coverage

The wide-ranging deployment of military facilities in the central part of the nation has precipitated the siting of S-75 and S-125 batteries to protect much of the DPRK's interior. S-125 batteries are specifically sited to protect two areas, Pyongyang and Yongbyon.

Air defense facilities and coverage zones near the capital of Pyongyang can be seen in the image below:
Air defense facilities and coverage zones near the Yongbyon nuclear research complex can be seen in the image below:
Interestingly, one location left udnefended is the underground nuclear test facility in the northeast. This may be due to the fact that if air defenses are present, analysts will assume that there is something there worth protecting. Similarly, the DPRK's rocket test sites at Musudan-ri and Changya-dong are also currently unprotected.

Denial and Deception Efforts

It is possible that many of the sites identified as active are not in fact legitimate SAM sites. With a number of camoflaged and underground facilities, the DPRK is clearly aware of the concept of denial and deception. Such practices may be in place in the strategic SAM network.

Consider the figures. It is reported that forty five S-75 batteries have been delivered, but forty six sites have been identified as operational. Many of these sites do not use traditional FSU site layouts, and are partially obscured by trees and other vegetation. The same numerical discrepancy exists in the S-125 force, with ten sites appearing active but only eight batteries reportedly being delivered. In addition, seven of the S-125 batteries have been provided with hardened facilities, begging the question of why the others have not. It is possible that the active S-125 batteries found at non-hardened facilities are in fact decoy sites. However, there is not sufficient evidence to conclusively prove this one way or the other.

The simplest method available to prove if a site is active or a decoy outside of having a personal ELINT system is to examine the imagery for the associated cable connections and other typical equipment found at active batteries. However, due to the aforementioned vegetation, many of these sites cannot be examined in this fashion. As such, if they contain what appears to be active equipment, they are assumed to be active batteries.

One mock S-125 site has been identified conclusively. This site, seen in the image below, contains a radar mockup and three launcher mockups. Note the southernmost launcher mockup. This launcher is clearly a mockup, having only two widely separated launch rails which are not parallel. Were this an actual 5P73 launcher, there would be four perfectly parallel rails. The imagery is of sufficient quality to discern that there are in fact only two rails. The spacing of the rails also indicates that this is not a 5P71 two-rail launcher. Further evidence of this site's true nature is found in the lack of any support equipment. None of the command and control vans are present, which would render this site unuseable even if it were fitted with operational equipment.
Air Defense Issues

The primary issue facing the DPRK's air defense network is one of age. While the equipment may still be serviceable, none of it is a major threat to a modern air arm. The DPRK desperately needs an infusion of modern air defense systems if it is to remain viable in the 21st Century.

The S-75 and S-125 have been faced multiple times by modern air arms since 1990 and have consistently been defeated by current tactics and electronic warfare techniques and systems. Iraq, Afghanistan, and Yugoslavia all possessed these systems and they were all defeated. The main victory claimed by these systems was the downing of an F-117A by a Yugoslavian S-125 battery in 1999, but this was due more to excellent intelligence support (they knew the F-117's route and whatever idiot planner was responsible used the same flight path over and over), outstanding site discipline (the site did not often radiate to give its position away), and the addition of an optical tracking system than the actual effectiveness of the system. In a conceivable conflict the DPRK would be facing American and ROK aircraft, and the USAF has exploited the S-75 and S-125 for decades. The S-200 may be marginally more credible as a threat, but as mentioned before it is only a significant threat to a cooperative (i.e. nonmaneuverable and slow) target. It has also been physically exploited based on the presence of equipment at the Tolicha Peak Electronic Combat Range, but it is not known when this was acquired, meaning that the DPRK may have a more recent iteration of the system with a few tricks up its sleeve that remain undocumented. Given American reliance on ISR and IFR platforms during wartime air operations, it is likely that the S-200 batteries would be struck during the opening salvo of any conflict.

The other major obstacle to the DPRK's strategic SAM force is terrain. Much of the terrain in the DPRK is very varied, including that near the DMZ. Even a height difference of a few hundred feet can produce an exploitable blind zone in a SAM battery's coverage. More critically, many of the S-75 batteries along the DMZ are placed in positions of lower altitude than the surrounding terrain, restricting the fields of view of the SAM batteries. This is a significant error in the placement of these systems, as it denys them the ability to function to their maximum degree of effectiveness. The hardened S-125 and S-200 batteries were placed more logically at higher elevations than surrounding terrain, allowing them greater freedom of operation.

One further issue to address is the overreliance on AAA and MANPADS' in the DPRK. The DPRK possesses some of the highest AAA concentrations in the world. The general cocnept is that combat aircraft will fly at lower altitudes to more easily evade SAM batteries, making them susceptible to AAA or MANPADS'. What the DPRK has overlooked is the fact that its SAM defenses are inadequate in light of current ECM and SEAD systems, allowing combat aircraft to fly at higher altitudes to avoid the bulk of the AAA and the entirety of the MANPADS threat. AAA is comparatively cheap and can be very effective in the right environment, but the DPRK seems to have seriously erred in its judgement.


The DPRK is the new Iraq. During the lead-up to Operation DESERT STORM, the Iraqi air defense network was often described as being one of the world's most capable. This turned out to be an erroneous description, based in part due to Iraq's overreliance on dated technology and weapon systems. The same problems which plagued Iraq's air defense network in 1991 are evident in North Korea's current network, and must be rectified if the DPRK intends to field any sort of credible air defense in the 21st Century.


-The aforementioned data is based on analysis of the available open-source satellite imagery of North Korea and may therefore not represent the entire air defense network.

-Satellite imagery provided courtesy of Google Earth

Ramona in the DPRK

North Korea Country Handbook, US DoD, 1997



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