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Ecuador, Northwest South America (1981-1998)


Ecuador, Northwest South America (1981-1998) Terrain
August 13th, 2018 (1st Release)
by Menrva, tiopilotos and Stratos


>For Strike Fighters 2, Recommended Full-5 Merged
I am proud to present a new scratch-made terrain, the result of a joint effort of modders! Initially conceived by Centurion-1, the terrain was later salvaged by Stratos, who offered to help in its development together with tiopilotos. Stratos helped by hand-tiling most if not all the incredibly long rivers in the Amazon rainforest. The terrain later received an impressive tileset produced by tiopilotos! You guys have my deepest gratitude!
The terrain completely covers Ecuador, a great portion of Peru, and even touches Colombia and Brasil. However, only Peru and Ecuador have been targetized at this stage. Numerous target areas, such as civilian airports and airstrips, have been added in order to expand playability, targets of opportunity and year span.

This terrain features a fresh new 250m resolution heightmap (instead of the stock 500m resolution), allowing for greater details and precision in elevation changes; overall it provides the whole terrain with a better look.

The terrain spans from January 28, 1981 (the beginning of the Paquisha Incident) to October 26, 1998 (when a resolution of the Ecuadorian-Peruvian territorial dispute was agreed upon through the Brasilia Presidential Act); it is designed for the Paquisha War of 1981 and the Cenepa War of 1995. Most air-to-ground missions (armed recon, close air support, etc.) take place at the border between Peru and Ecuador, to provide an even more realistic scenario. As in reality, there are few SAM sites placed at their precise Real World locations.
Targets reflect Real World events as accurately as possible; for instance, some border outposts will appear only after a certain year, according to historic changes. Off Map Airbases have been added and long range AI flights can be generated from them, if you have SF2NA.

Ground Objects are not included. It's up to the user to find and obtain anything that can be useful for the proposed terrain's scenarios.


>Credits (in no particular order):
-Centurion-1, for his interest in recreating such scenario in the Strike Fighters world. I heard RL got in your way, so... best of luck, mate!
-tiopilotos, for the massive tileset he produced, and for his continuous support in all my terrain modding efforts. Thank you very much!
-Stratos, for he brought to attention Centurion-1's unfinished terrain and offered to help realize it.
-swambast, who provided me with invaluable help in tracking and fixing common and uncommon bugs.
-gerwin, whose TFDtool has proved to be essential in today's terrain making. If the terrain is pretty accurate to RL it's also because of him. I included his very nice Airfield 7+8 Addon Pack, too.
-mue, for the improved shaders he made, which I have included and reworked for the terrain, and for the tools he made for SF2 modding.
-luk1978, for the waternormal bitmap he shared at the SF2 screenshots thread. Your mods are very interesting!
-MigBuster, I have included some of his great hi-res textures for runways.
-Stary, for the various hi-res tilesets and TODs he made, which have been re-used in this tileset.
-Gepard, for his great tutorials about terrain making, in the SF1 Knowledge Base at CombatACE. It's a gold mine!
-RussoUK, for the fixed Pit LOD he made, which solved a shadow bug from the original TW's LOD.
-krfrge, who has produced a tutorial for recreating SF2-like planning maps, which prompted me to work on templates and my own high quality planning maps. Thank you very much!
-comrpnt, for his Approach and Airfield Lighting Pack mod packages for SF1 series, which I reworked and included.

Although scratch-made, the terrain makes use of most objects and target layouts from Wrench's Panama terrain; because of this, I included the ReadMe file from that package, to the end of giving proper credit to everyone involved directly or not.


>Disclaimer:
This is a freeware; yet it can be redistributed ONLY in other CombatACE mods/mod packages.
Any changes to the terrain package's files and/or any copy-and-paste attempts of their contents are NOT authorized if you plan to release them in other mods. But permission might be granted to those who request it to me at CombatACE.
This terrain may NOT in any way, shape or form be used in any payware additions.


>My Terrain Packages:

Timor, North Oceania (1950-2018)

Texas, American South Central (1968-2018)

Sweden, Baltic Rim (2004-2018)

Sweden, Baltic Rim (1952-1994)

Libya, Central Mediterranean (1980-2011)

Madagascar, Southeast Africa (1977-2018)

Iraq, Western Asia (2003-2018)

Alaska, Bering Strait (1955-2018)

Iraq, Western Asia (1980-2003)


>My Miscellaneous Packages:

Nations & Medals Expansion

Speech Enhancement

Strike Fighters: Wings Over World Menu Screens

realSKY Environment


 

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Before someone asks this, the terrain will crash to dektop with certain mission types, if you don't install all the Ecuadorian and Peruvian aircraft available here at CombatACE. I would like to provide a complete list, but I can't ATM. Just use CombatACE's search bar to find all the appropriate airplanes.

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Here is a nice link for the Alto Canepa war (1995):

http://www.acig.info/forum/viewtopic.php?f=18&t=567&hilit=peru

Quote

I have come across very few detailed information about this conflict. I find it particularly interesting since it was the first, and to date the only, fast jet vs fast yet conflict in the entire western hemisphere. 

I had an Internet article that had a decent summary of the actions but I can't seem to find it anymore and the specifics are lost on my memory. From what I can remember and some other sources, I recall 1 Su-22 and a A-37 shot down by Kfir fighters of the FAE. Some other victims, this time to ground fire, were a Peruvian Mi-25, a Canberra, a Su-22 and an Ecuadorian Gazelle. 

Does anyone know any specifics of the individual engagements? Why weren't the Mirage 2000 employed at the front lines? What happened with the Mirage 5, why weren't they used? 


*************************************************************


Tomcat114 
Administrator 
Posts: 1277 
(7/20/01 4:35:25 am) 
Reply Re: War of the "Alto Cenepa" (Peru-Ecuador 1995) 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Juan, 
most of my data is from two or three different issues of AFM and S.M. Huertas "Mirage: the Combat Log". 

Basically, Peru and Ecuador classhed seriously already in 1981, in the Parquisha region, exactly 40 years after their first war for this area, in 1941. In 1981 there was severe fighting on the ground, and both air forces supported their troops. Su-22Ms and Mirage 5Ps of the FAP Grupo 13 flew a series of missions, as well as Mirage F.1EJs of the FAE Esc. 2111. AT/T-37s were used as well. Although the results of air strikes remained - reportedly - limited, the Peruvian Army managed to capture several villages along the border, including Payuicha, Mayaycu and Macinaya, and - as they stand alone on the battlefield in the end - Peruvians were considered as "winners". 

After this clash, both sides established a chain of bases in the jungle of the Condor Cordillera area, along a 76km long corridor between Zamora and Santiago Rivers. These bases were supported by a chain of very high rised observation posts. Some of these posts and bases were very close near each other, and many skirmishes erupted time and again. 

Due to a complete lack of any roads, the only way of supplying and supporting these bases and posts was from the air, usually with the help of helicoptes, althogh, with the time also a number of small strips were built in the jungle. 

In early 1995, both armies started to concentrate troops in the Canepa calley, and in the night of 26 to 27 January, first battles followed, after Peruvians flew in a larger battle group. According to Ecuadorian reports, no less but 30 soldiers were killed in these first clashes. Both sides then tried to reinforce their troops, but on 30 January Ecuadorians claimed their first Peruvian Mi-8, as shot down by a Blowpipe MANPAD, and during the following days also a number of additional Mi-8s, CH-47s and Bell 212s were claimed as well. 

After the failure of negotiations on 9 February 1995, fiercest fighting so far broke out and the FAP was now very active over the "front" (if the situation can be described as such, as there was no actual front, but a whole chain of hot spots, where small units were clashing with each other). On that day alone, the FAP flew 16 sorties, some of these by Mirage 5Ps and Su-22s, foremost against Ecuadorian posts around Cangos and the base "Sur". In the following night, additional strikes were flown by Canberra B(I).Mk.68s against Ecuadorian positions in the Canepa valley, and in the morning of 10 February A-37Bs and Su-22Ms flew a series of attacks against Tiwintza and Cueva de Los Tayos. The Ecuadorians claimed two additional Mi-8s shot down by Blowpipes and AAA on that morning as well. 

By 14:15h, FAE Mirage F.1EJ became active over the battlefield, and two of them, flown by Maj. Banderas and Capt. Uscategui (they started in Quayqil) intercepted a group of AT-37Bs and Su-22Ms which started from Talara and Chichlayo. 

The following is by Huerta's description: Banderas detected the first opponent from a distance of 11km, and shortly after visualised two Su-22Ms. Both Mirages attacked, with Banderas apparently firing one R.550 Magic II from the forward hemisphere, before diving to the deck in order to search for cover in the case of Peruvian reaction. His missile hit the wingman Su-22M, which started to loose height and finally crashed. 

The second Su-22M turned behind Banderas, but was then attacked by Uscategui which fired one R.550 Magic II. The Peruvian pilot tried to evade, but the Magic hit and cut the Sukhoi in two pieces. The wreck fell into the jungle, and if I remember correctly, it was found only last or early this year, together with remants of the pilot, which ejected but was injured while fallign throught the jungle canopy, and - sadly - died from his injuries while haplessly hanging on his parachute high over the ground. 

While disengaging, both FAE Mirages have got warnings on their RWRs that they were detected by Peruvian Mirage 2000Ps, thus they distanced away. 

Some times later, two Ecuadorian Kfir C.2s established a CAP over the Canepa Valley, and they intercepted a section of AT-37s. Capt. Mata managed to position behind one of Peruvians and he claimed one Dragonfly as shot down by a Shafrir-IV AAM. Subsequently, Ecuadorians claimed two additional Mi-8s, but these claims could not be confirmed so far, and these two Mils could be the same as claimed on the same morning. 

Despite their losses - or, if no losses were suffered, then contrary to Ecuadorian claims - the FAP continued its strikes on the next morning, while its helicopters continued supporting operations, dispatching troops on surounding peakes. Supposedly, however, Mi-8s showed as not especially effective at given hights and under given climatic circumstances and some problems were encountered with them. 

Ecuadorians claimed another FAP aircraft as shot down in the night of 11 February, this time one Canberra, while Peruvians claimed two Ecuadorian Kfirs as shot down by SA-14 MANPADs. Supposedly, at least one of Ecuadorian Kfirs was hit indeed, but it managed to return back to its base. 

The FAE became more active on 12 February, with its AT-37Bs flying a series of strikes, escorted by Mirage F.1JAs. ON 14 February, Peruvians claimed another AT-37B over Cueva de Los Tayos with a SA-7, but - while this plane was hit (in front of the left intake) and badly damaged - it returned safely to the base and was subsequently reparied (every since, it carries a small title "Tiwintza" on the left side under the canopy). 

On 17 February, the UN brokered a ceasse-fire, so the fighting stopped, but it was reported that four days later Peruvian Mi-8s straffed several minefields between Tiwintza and Apama in order to destroy anti-personnel mines sawn there by Ecuadorians. One day later, a large Peruvian battle group was flown with CH-47s and Bell 212s into Ecuadorian positons around Tiwintza and blodiest battles of the whole war followed. 

By that time, however, the FAE seems to have established a sort of air superiority over the battlefield, consequently, the FAP was unable to support ground operations effectivelly any more, despite some AT-37s being stationed only 32 kms away. Therefore, the Peruvian offensive was stopped, although Lima claimed, that Tiwintza is the last remaining place in Ecuadorian position in that part of the embattled region. 

That's, basically, the most important what I have about this short war, usually called here "Condor Conflict". 

The OrBAts of both air forces at the time of the conflict (most important units only) in 1995 should have looked like as follows (remark: I have no support for Spanish or Portuguese languages on my PC, consequently, some spellings are certainly wrong): 

Peru 
FAP 
Grupo Aéreo 3 at base Jorge Chavez/Lima 
Esc. de Helicopteros 332 Mi-8T, Mi-8MTV, Mi-17 
Esc. de Helicopteros 341 UH-1H, Bell 212, Bell 214ST 

Grupo Aéreo 4 at Mariano Melgar AB/La Joya 
Esc. de Caza 411 Su-20, Su-22M-2K 
Esc. de Caza 412 Mirage 2000P/DP 

Grupo Aéreo 6 at Cpt. Abelardo AB/Chiclayo 
Esc. de Caza 611 Mirage 5P/DP 

Grupo Aéreo 7 at Cpt. Concha AB/Piura 
Esc. de Caza-Bombardeo 711 A-37B 

Grupo Aéreo de Transporte 8 at Jorge Chavez AB/Lima-Callao 
Esc. de T. 841 Boeing 707-323C, L-100-20 
Esc. de T. 842 An-32, An-74 
Esc. de T. 843 Cessna 185/421, Queen Air A80 

Grupo Aéreo 9 at Renan Eloias Oliveira AB/Pisco 
Esc. de Bomb. 921 Canberra B(I).12 

Grupo Aéreo 11 at Cpt. Montes AB/Talara 
Esc. de Caza 111 Los Tigres Su-20, Su-22M-2K 

Grupo Aéreo de Transporte 42 at Coronel Vignette AB/Iquitos 
Transportes Nacionales DHC-6, Y-12II, PC-6 

Grupo de Fuerzas Especiales at Rodriguez Ballon AB/Arequipa 
Esc. Aéreo 211 Mi-24, Mi-8 

ECUADOR 
FAE 
Comando de Operationes 
Ala de Combate 21 at Taura AB/Guayaquil 
Esc. de Combat 2111 Jaguar S/B 11 fighters 
Esc. de Caza 2112 Mirage F.1EJ 13 fighters 
Esc. de Combate 2113 Kfir C.2 9 fighters 

Ala de Transporte 22 
Esc. de Trsp. 2211 DHC-6 at Taura AB/Guayaquil 
Esc. de Trsp. 2212 SA.316B 
Esc. de Trsp. Cessna 150 

Ala de Combate 23 at Taura AB, Manta AB 
Esc. de Combate 2311 A-37B 7 fighters 
Esc. de Combate 2312 AT-33 ? fighters 
Esc. de Combate 2313 Strikemaster Mk.89 ? examples 

Ala de Transporte 11 at Quito Int. Airport 
Esc. de Trsp. 1111 Twin Otter DHC-6-300, HS.748, DHC-5D 
Esc. de Trsp. Hercules C-130H/L-100-30, Boeing 727 

EMA 
- T-34C, T-4 at Salinas AB 

In his book "Mirage: The Combat Log" Huertas also published some photos of Ecuadorean Mirage F.1JAs, including two showing kill markings on them. The example FAE806 carried a large emblem "Copa Taura 94 Top Gun" on the left side of the fuselage in front of the cockpti, with a large kill marking (at least 20cm) in emerald green with a red Su-22-silhouette on it. FAE807 carried a similar marking as well. 

Shortly ago, I think it was June this year, the FAE806 was reported as being sighted carrying now a kill marking for an AT-37, not Su-22 any more, while most recent researches (including reports about the search for the wreckage of two Su-22s, which mention only one wreck and one pilot being found) place some shade of doubt that Mirages indeed shot down two Su-22Ms. As it seems, only Peruvian planes shot down in air combat were one Su-22M and one AT-37, but there is - so far - no official confirmation for this (at least, I don't know about any). 

 

Edited by jeanba
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  • Similar Content

    • By Menrva
      Ecuador, Northwest South America (1981-1998) Terrain
      August 13th, 2018 (1st Release)
      by Menrva, tiopilotos and Stratos

      >For Strike Fighters 2, Recommended Full-5 Merged
      I am proud to present a new scratch-made terrain, the result of a joint effort of modders! Initially conceived by Centurion-1, the terrain was later salvaged by Stratos, who offered to help in its development together with tiopilotos. Stratos helped by hand-tiling most if not all the incredibly long rivers in the Amazon rainforest. The terrain later received an impressive tileset produced by tiopilotos! You guys have my deepest gratitude!
      The terrain completely covers Ecuador, a great portion of Peru, and even touches Colombia and Brasil. However, only Peru and Ecuador have been targetized at this stage. Numerous target areas, such as civilian airports and airstrips, have been added in order to expand playability, targets of opportunity and year span.
      This terrain features a fresh new 250m resolution heightmap (instead of the stock 500m resolution), allowing for greater details and precision in elevation changes; overall it provides the whole terrain with a better look.
      The terrain spans from January 28, 1981 (the beginning of the Paquisha Incident) to October 26, 1998 (when a resolution of the Ecuadorian-Peruvian territorial dispute was agreed upon through the Brasilia Presidential Act); it is designed for the Paquisha War of 1981 and the Cenepa War of 1995. Most air-to-ground missions (armed recon, close air support, etc.) take place at the border between Peru and Ecuador, to provide an even more realistic scenario. As in reality, there are few SAM sites placed at their precise Real World locations.
      Targets reflect Real World events as accurately as possible; for instance, some border outposts will appear only after a certain year, according to historic changes. Off Map Airbases have been added and long range AI flights can be generated from them, if you have SF2NA.
      Ground Objects are not included. It's up to the user to find and obtain anything that can be useful for the proposed terrain's scenarios.

      >Credits (in no particular order):
      -Centurion-1, for his interest in recreating such scenario in the Strike Fighters world. I heard RL got in your way, so... best of luck, mate!
      -tiopilotos, for the massive tileset he produced, and for his continuous support in all my terrain modding efforts. Thank you very much!
      -Stratos, for he brought to attention Centurion-1's unfinished terrain and offered to help realize it.
      -swambast, who provided me with invaluable help in tracking and fixing common and uncommon bugs.
      -gerwin, whose TFDtool has proved to be essential in today's terrain making. If the terrain is pretty accurate to RL it's also because of him. I included his very nice Airfield 7+8 Addon Pack, too.
      -mue, for the improved shaders he made, which I have included and reworked for the terrain, and for the tools he made for SF2 modding.
      -luk1978, for the waternormal bitmap he shared at the SF2 screenshots thread. Your mods are very interesting!
      -MigBuster, I have included some of his great hi-res textures for runways.
      -Stary, for the various hi-res tilesets and TODs he made, which have been re-used in this tileset.
      -Gepard, for his great tutorials about terrain making, in the SF1 Knowledge Base at CombatACE. It's a gold mine!
      -RussoUK, for the fixed Pit LOD he made, which solved a shadow bug from the original TW's LOD.
      -krfrge, who has produced a tutorial for recreating SF2-like planning maps, which prompted me to work on templates and my own high quality planning maps. Thank you very much!
      -comrpnt, for his Approach and Airfield Lighting Pack mod packages for SF1 series, which I reworked and included.
      Although scratch-made, the terrain makes use of most objects and target layouts from Wrench's Panama terrain; because of this, I included the ReadMe file from that package, to the end of giving proper credit to everyone involved directly or not.

      >Disclaimer:
      This is a freeware; yet it can be redistributed ONLY in other CombatACE mods/mod packages.
      Any changes to the terrain package's files and/or any copy-and-paste attempts of their contents are NOT authorized if you plan to release them in other mods. But permission might be granted to those who request it to me at CombatACE.
      This terrain may NOT in any way, shape or form be used in any payware additions.

      >My Terrain Packages:
      Timor, North Oceania (1950-2018)
      Texas, American South Central (1968-2018)
      Sweden, Baltic Rim (2004-2018)
      Sweden, Baltic Rim (1952-1994)
      Libya, Central Mediterranean (1980-2011)
      Madagascar, Southeast Africa (1977-2018)
      Iraq, Western Asia (2003-2018)
      Alaska, Bering Strait (1955-2018)
      Iraq, Western Asia (1980-2003)

      >My Miscellaneous Packages:
      Nations & Medals Expansion
      Speech Enhancement
      Strike Fighters: Wings Over World Menu Screens
      realSKY Environment
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