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Ahh that old familiar tale you say - of course, in the late 1960s the F-4 Phantom II finally had a gun installed, which meant that everything was better, magical unicorns danced around the sky and the Vietnamese MiGs would fall from the sky in droves!

Okay so that didn’t quite happen….......what did?  

 

 

Note - These articles are a compacted summary of a rather massive topic and will discuss the F-4 and Guns in Vietnam mostly ignoring missiles. Vietnam will be used instead of SEA. And USN includes the US Marines for simplicity.

 

 

Very different F-4s and Air Forces (USAF v USN)

Firstly, with different equipment, ideas and ways of doing things the United States pretty much had different Air Forces in the US Navy (USN) and the US Air Force (USAF), so it is important to draw a big red line between them with a quick summary:

 

US Navy F-4 Versions in Vietnam

  • F-4B (F4H-1) – Second F-4 version but first major production version of the F-4.
  • F-4J - Improved F-4B

Major Differences compared to the USAF

  • Air to Air Refueling with Drogue and Basket
  • Use of AIM-9B/D/G/H versions of Sidewinder only as Short Range Missile.
  • Never fitted Guns, not even pods (outside of a brief trial with the GAU-4)
  • Internal ECM equipment.
  • Different Radars (AN/APQ-72, -59 & AWG-10 Pulse Doppler)
  • Had no flight controls in the back seat
  • In 1972 preferred used of AIM-9G/H Sidewinder over AIM-7E-2 Sparrow
  • Used more flexible Loose Deuce A-A formation tactics
  • Carrier and land based (Marines)

F-4J_refuelUSN.jpg.bec1275f9c834e6b6745aec5addbe703.jpg

USN F-4J refueling drogue and chute style (USN)

 

 

USAF F-4 Versions in Vietnam

  • F-4C (F-110A) – Based on the F-4B with USAF changes.
  • F-4D – Improved F-4C.
  • F-4E – This is the (only) F-4 with the internal Gun.

Major Differences compared to the US Navy

  • Air to Air Refueling with Boom
  • Used AIM-9B/E/J versions of Sidewinder
  • Used AIM-4D Falcon for periods over the AIM-9 on F-4D/E
  • External Podded ECM equipment
  • Different Radars (AN/APQ-100, -109 & -120 )
  • Use of Gun Pods (SUU-16 & SUU-23)
  • Had some flight controls in the back seat
  • In 1972 preferred use of AIM-7E-2 Sparrow over AIM-9 / AIM-4
  • Insisted on sticking to the obsolete / useless fluid four (Welded Wing) A-A formation tactics right to the end.

5ab808caf1ac4_USAFF-4refuel1967KC135USAFphoto.thumb.JPG.bfd1b0b703a2eb8150603768fa6715a2.JPG

USAF F-4 nears the boom of a KC-135 in 1967 (USAF)

 

Why no gun on the F-4 to start with?

On the 18th September 1947 the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) became the USAF and with the limited budget constraints after WWII, Strategic Air Command (SAC) was seen as security priority and was thus given the major funding over the Tactical Air Forces (TAF).

SAC culture dominated the USAF in the early years along with its doctrine of strategic nuclear bombing with massive manned bombers. Tactical Fighters (F-100/F-101 etc) under this emphasis on SAC now had two roles:

  1. Defend against enemy bombers as interceptors. (Air Defence Command / ADC)
  2. Low level delivery of tactical Nukes. (Tactical Air Forces / TAF) 

Apparently, Korea never happened because by the late 1950s bombing a target in a fighter within 750ft was more then good enough (with a Nuclear weapon) so not only conventional Air to Air training went out the window but also conventional bombing!

One Air Force general noted about this period, General (Curtiss) LeMay had deliberately loaded the Air Staff with bomber guys, who were not well acquainted with things like air superiority or air-to-air combat, and who wanted to destroy enemy aircraft on their airfields. In 1957, LeMay actually tried to eliminate the TAF, but the possibility of the Army developing its tactical air support arm overrode this idea, and later that year LeMay reluctantly gave the TAF more funds to keep its mission from being turned over to the Army.

5ab808ffe31f6_b-36aarrivalcarswell1948-USAFphoto.jpg.02d60e6e5b79bbea8975079705eec0e2.jpg

Who needs fighters anyway? - the B-36 Peacemaker takes its toddler son for a walk in 1948 (USAF)

 

Some of this thinking was perhaps driving the US Navy with their F4 program in the 1950s. The USN had a requirement to intercept Soviet bombers attacking the fleet above 50,000ft out of the range of gun armed fighters and thus from 1956 the AIM-7 Sparrow III was to be the primary weapon with a gun as secondary. By 1957 however the gun was deleted from the design because the new AIM-9 Sidewinder was to be the secondary weapon.

The USAF took on the F-4 as part of Defense Secretary Robert McNamara’s drive to get the services to use standard equipment with commonality. He was also interested in the conventional side of things and saw both the A-G potential as well as the A-A potential and thus the USAF received the F-4C (originally designated F-110A).

(Note: yes this was potentially one of the few things McNamara did that wasn’t a complete catastrophe!)

Of course, the F-4 wasn’t the only aircraft of its time without an internal gun (another reason seen given is that pilots would never have closed to gun range to take down a bomber carrying Nukes.)

Some other Interceptors of the era born with no internal Gun:

  • F-102 Delta Dagger
  • F-106 Delta Dart (Some later got a gun under project Six Shooter from around 1969)
  • Su-9/11 Fishpot
  • Tu-128 Fiddler
  • Su-15 Flagon
  • MiG-25 Foxbat

Some Interceptors that had the gun removed:

  • Lightning Fmk3
  • CF-104 Starfighter (Early) A gun was later incorporated
  • MiG-17PFU Fresco
  • MiG-19PM Farmer
  • MiG-21PF/PFV/PFS/PFM/FL  (PFV and PFM used by the VPAF in Vietnam along with the gun armed F-13 and MF)

F102-USAFphoto.JPG.a7cd87d3213ceb717765d735e65ce020.JPG

 F-102A Delta Dagger interceptors (USAF)

 

 

Getting a gun on the F-4E

McDonnell first proposed an internal gun for the F-4 in 1961 however it wasn’t until a potential limited war in Vietnam looked likely in 1963 that this was taken more seriously by the military for Ground Attack / strafing. By 1965 combat experience determined that a gun was a requirement and it was trialed in the F-4, and thus the F-4E was born with a nose job and new APQ-120 Radar:

 

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This shows the 22 modules (Line Replaceable Units / LRUs) required for the APQ-120 radar

 

Adding the gun solved all the problems yes?

The original gun muzzle caused a few problems. Firstly gas ingestion into the engine inlets caused engine flameouts and secondly it made a loud whistling noise that apparently notified the enemy troops (and their Dogs presumably ) long before the F-4 got there. The muzzle had to be redesigned and the later F-4Es have a longer gun muzzle under the nose.

Also not shown in the diagram above, the gun assembly and ammo drum took up a lot of space in the nose and the dish/antenna size was reduced.

The Westinghouse APQ-120 was an early ‘Solid State’ radar (derived from the APQ-109) and being Solid State must have helped in reducing the obvious vibration issue when you have a massive Gatling gun sitting next to 1960s electronics! Despite this it still exceeded the reliability requirements and was similar in that regards to the F-4D radar that had no gun in the nose.

Ex F-4 flyer Walt BJ stated that the APQ-120 in the F-4E had about 20-25% less range over the APQ-109 in the F-4D.

 

Didn’t the F-4E just wipe the floor now it had a gun?

During Operation Linebacker I & II (1972/73):

  • The USAF F-4E had 22 claims in 25 (known) engagements including 7 gun kills
  • The USAF F-4D had 27 claims in 30 (known) engagements with no gun kills

So firstly, if you add an internal gun but still don’t train anyone to use it then despite any figures nothing really changes. Secondly the missiles and radars had improved since 1965 regarding close in capability and so the Gun was starting to look very secondary by now.

Considering the extra effort required for guns in skill, fuel, risk of collision, and making themselves more vulnerable, a missile would be the priority weapon regardless of the USAF training issues.

 

What about the gun pods?

Stop gap measures meant some squads using the 20mm SUU-16 and SUU-23 Gatling gun pods on the F-4C and D respectively – however despite some success these were somewhat inaccurate and the extra drag had a noticeable effect on range.

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Looking happy to be here - SUU-23 Gun pod on the center line station of an F-4 (Clive Camm)

 

Some championed the Gun pod such as Korean war ace Col Frederik “Boots” Blesse after it became a useful strafing tool for South Vietnam sorties.

USAF Col Robin Olds was a tad less enthusiastic:

The gun pod wasn’t so much a speed penalty as an object of increased drag and fuel consumption. But that wasn’t my objection to the gun pod, I refused to carry it for 3 basic reasons;

  1. It took the place of five or six 750 lb bombs.
  2. Only my older and more experienced fighter pilots had ever been trained in aerial gunnery, to say nothing of air-to-air fighting. There were perhaps a dozen of them in the 8th TFW.
  3. I had no intention of giving any of my young pilots the temptation to go charging off to engage MiG-17s with a gun. They would have been eaten alive. Instead they fought MiGs the way I taught them and did so with notable success.

The US Navy briefly trialed the 20mm MK4 (GAU-4) Gatling gun pod but this was determined to be useless in operation with technical difficulties and also meant the preferred configuration of center line drop tank only could not be carried.

5ab8091c5cb8c_DaveWoolseyGAU4podF-4USN1965.JPG.1bc0626bf40110807d4d11be6ad168ed.JPG

The not so successful MK4 (GAU-4) gun pod at China Lake (Dave Woolsey)

 

Did the Navy not want an internal or any gun?

For the primary purpose of fleet air defense, ‘missiles only’ it seems was deemed adequate. When in combat over Vietnam some Navy pilots wanted it and others didn’t. The gun pod was not persevered with and even an offer of free SUU-16/23 pods from the USAF was turned down on one occasion.

We can deduce that if you reshaped the F-4J nose like the F-4E then you also have to reduce the radar dish size and forfeit range which might not be the best idea regarding fleet defense.

Simply plonking in the APQ-120 with less range and no useful lookdown/shootdown capability was probably not going to win USN favour. Even spending the money on a modified APG-59/AWG-10 still gets you reduced range at the end of it.

The APG-59/AWG-10 in the F-4J had some good lookdown techniques (for its time) and was considered superior. However even without the gun the F-4B/J Phantom avionics suffered from heavy carrier landings:

I had a USN F4J pilot in my back seat one night gunship escort mission (can't for the life of me remember why) and he marvelled at the radar pickup. I asked him why he thought it was so good when he was flying the J model. He told me after about 4 'standard' carrier landings the radar wasn't so hot anymore. (Walt BJ)

 

 

So, what did the Pilots say about Guns, Training, and Back Seat Drivers

During the Vietnam conflict a Secret project (Red Baron) took place which compiled every A-A engagement fought. As part of that the aircrews were interviewed where available, giving quite a mixed view.

3 April 1965 F-4B USN front seat pilot (with 1000 hours)

There is a need for a close in weapon as a backup on any mission……………….Guns would also be useful as an air-ground weapon (stopping a truck convoy, for example)

10 July 1965 USAF F-4C front seat pilot

Gun not necessary; it will get people into trouble. Would like capability to fire all missiles on the F-4 with Centreline Tank on. Less minimum range for missiles instead of guns…….Because lack of ACT at time of event, did not know how to manoeuvre the F-4 as well as he could later after some experience.

6 Oct 1965 USN F-4B front seat pilot

Fighter needs guns or short range missile……………..Turning and acceleration rate of MiG-17 was impressive. The MiG leader was aggressive and a good fighter pilot.

23 April 1966 USAF F-4C front seat pilot

Improve the performance of the AAM and the gun will not be needed…………Training safety restrictions severely limited air-combat-tactics training prior to deployment to the combat area.

23 April 1966 USAF F-4C front seat pilot

The need for a F-4 gun is overstated, although it would be of value if it could be obtained without hurting current radar and other system performance. If you are in a position to fire guns, you have made some mistake. Why after a mistake would a gun solve all problems. Also having a gun would require proficiency at firing, extra training etc. Have enough problems staying proficient in current systems. If the F-4 had guns, we would have lost a lot more, since once a gun dual starts the F-4 is at a disadvantage against the MiG.

23 April 1966 USAF F-4C front seat pilot

Felt that he had very poor air-combat-tactics background. Prior background was bomber and other multi-engine. Transition to F-4 oriented toward upgrading a qualified fighter pilot rather than training a pilot with no fighter background.

25 April 1966 USAF F-4C back seat pilot

Gun is not particularly desirable, if the performance of the aircraft is degraded by an external installation. Also, one might make the mistake of getting into a turning battle if a gun was available

25 April 1966 USAF F-4C back seat pilot

Capability of the F-4 is being wasted by having a pilot in the back seat. The pilot is not adequately trained as a radar observer. Need a radar expert in the back seat. The pilot back seaters main goal is to be upgraded to the front seat rather than master the radar.

26 April 1966 USAF F-4C front pilot

It is a fallacy to say that you can bring the F-4C home and land it solely from the back seat. You’ve got to blow the gear down and then there is no antiskid system; there is no drag chute handle; there is no fuel gauges or switches; you may be limited to using internal fuel; you can’t dump fuel or jettison tanks.

A gun would be nice in an F-4C as long as it was clearly understood it was only a weapon of last resort. Soviet fighters are more capable than US aircraft inside gun range.

29 April 1966 USAF F-4C back seat pilot

It was not necessary to have a pilot in the back seat of the F-4 except during night A-G missions when a pilot may more capably advise the aircraft commander. Actually, a radar officer would be more interested in the back-seat operation than a pilot would be.

29 April 1966 USAF F-4C front seat pilot

It would be undesirable and possibly fatal for an F-4 to use a gun in fighting with a MiG because the MiG is built to fight with guns and the F-4 is not.

30 April 1966 USAF F-4C front seat pilot

Training was not really adequate for this engagement, didn’t know what the back should do in a hassle such as this.

14 June 1966 USN front seat pilot

Guns would be most useful for the ResCAP role but not particularly valuable in the air to air role.

 

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An F-4B from VF-111 Sundowners giving it some - just because (USN)

 

The F-4 Phantom II Dogfighter?

As we know the F-4 was not particularly the most agile fighter in theatre and turning at a slower speed was a bit of a problem. However, US fighters had seldom been the best turners in previous conflicts such as WWII (think F-6F Hellcat V Zero) ……power and speed could make up for it and were often better attributes to have.

In 1966 the US Navy flew “Project Plan” flying the F-4B against a series of fighters to determine how good it was in an Air Superiority role. It concluded that contrary to what F-4 pilots thought the F-4 was the best air to air fighter in the world (including the F-8), if the F-4 stayed fast.

To fly the F-4 however in BFM/ACM you needed to have training and a lot of experience (like most jets of this era). One particular characteristic of the hard-winged F-4 was “Adverse Yaw” at slower speeds where the pilot had to make the turn using rudder pedals instead of the stick. If the stick was used the chances of departing were very high – somewhat fatal in combat. Now stick a pilot in the cockpit with little training and you can see that in the heat of battle adverse yaw becomes quite serious (not just A-A but avoiding SAMs etc). Of course, pilots just simply avoided going anywhere near adverse yaw if they could however that meant they could never max perform the jet if they needed to in every situation.

Adverse Yaw was all but eliminated by adding leading edge slats to the F-4E with the 556 "Rivet Haste" Mod late 1972. Too late to have any real relevance for Vietnam though. 

 

 

In Part 2 we look at the very different training aspects of the USN/USAF/VPAF, the F-105 / F-8  paradox and the myth / legend of Colonel Tomb.

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The AWG-10 evolved into a great radar but it fell far short of the brochure data as released with the F-4J. A slatted F-4S with the AWG-10B was an awesome machine only lacking a gun. But look at where the F-4E was at during the same time frame. The APQ-120 evolved in parallel with the AWG-10... digital improvements increased reliability and capability across the board. But look at what the F-4E gained in its multi-role ground attack capability as well as the frameless front canopy that was deployed in limited numbers. I would have been happy to be a pilot of either one, but I think I would have preferred the F-4E unless I specifically was tasked with fleet defense over water, in which case the F-4S/AWG-10 was just short of the F-14/AWG-9 capability. But the F-4E was better at dogfighting and far better at ground attack.

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As for the value of the gun, just read about Israeli experience with the F-15 in combat. They still used the guns quite a bit despite the advances provided by the AIM-7F and Shafrir missiles. They don't have any good things to say about the AIM-7. They love having the gun when all else has failed. The F-4 was originally designed to have guns (4x20mm in the belly IIRC). It was a mistake to delete them. If you think the chin mount is bad for a gun/radar installation, just look that the F/A-18 Hornet for a worse idea. If an opponent has stealth/ECM comparable to the USA, guns may yet prove to be the key to success in air-to-air combat.

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Part II has a small part about the need for a gun on modern aircraft.(arguments for only)...............however there are probably some good reasons against.  I am sticking to a viable source and not speculating on what a future combat scenario looks like if you ignore networks, DEW, 360 multi spectrum sensors, wingmen (Manned or otherwise) etc etc

Israel seemed to have very good A-A training and lot of the guys had combat experience on top (and in using the older Sparrows). In the late 60s the gun literally was their primary weapon on the Mirage IIIC, but by the early 80s it was very secondary if the figures are to go by (Have for both F-16 & 15).

Also trying to avoid generalizations................ I am fairly certain without looking that some of the Israeli guys were pretty impressed when they scored 2 look down kills with the AIM-7F (1982?).

 

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11 hours ago, streakeagle said:

As for the value of the gun, just read about Israeli experience with the F-15 in combat. They still used the guns quite a bit despite the advances provided by the AIM-7F and Shafrir missiles.

Strange because I think that during the Bekaa Valley, half of the F15 kills were scored by Sparrows ?

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7 hours ago, jeanba said:

Strange because I think that during the Bekaa Valley, half of the F15 kills were scored by Sparrows ?

June 1982 Bekaa Valley IDF F-15 claims

Python 3 = 19
AIM-7F = 10
M61A1 Cannon = 2
 

 

 

 

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There is an Osprey book on the F-15 in Israeli service. It covers a lot of the fights in detail along with pilot comments. The gun was used a lot more often on the F-15 than is otherwise apparent, especially prior to 1982. They went out of there way to use the AIM-7 since that is the primary weapon of the F-15, but the AIM-7F didn't do much better than the AIM-7E2 (which was actually pretty good as far as AIM-7s go). You can also look at the F-14 engagements with Libya. They use the AIM-7 as much as possible but ultimately end up using AIM-9s. I am a huge AIM-7 fan and the AIM-7M finally achieved a useful PK, but the AIM-7 never achieved the reliability of the AIM-9. More complexity = less reliability.

The USAF F-4s assigned to CAP in 1972 did fairly well with the AIM-7, but that was out of necessity due to the ineffectiveness of AIM-4s and AIM-9E/J missiles. Combat Tree helped them attempt BVR shots which were the ideal situation. The AIM-7E2 also performed much better than earlier AIM-7s in a short range dogfight/tail chase situation with shorter minimum range, higher allowed launch g, and more maneuverability.

The AIM-7F was supposed to be far superior to the AIM-7E, but apparently its seeker was inferior to the British Skyflash. Rather than buy the British weapons (which had the older inferior AIM-7E platform), the AIM-7M had a seeker comparable to the Skyflash and the engine/performance of the AIM-7F. An AIM-7 with an AMRAAM equivalent seeker would have been great, but with funding going down after the collapse of the USSR, all further AIM-7 development was canceled in favor of the lighter AMRAAM, which could be carried by just about any aircraft that could carry the AIM-9.

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You wrote:

" MiG-21PF/PFL/PFS/PFM  (PFL and PFM used by the VPAF in Vietnam along with the gun armed F-13 and PM)"

I have never heard about a MiG-21PFL and MiG-21PM.

There was a MiG-21FL export model for non allied costumers like India or Egypt.

The Vietnam version was called MiG-21PFV.

A gun pod could carried on late MiG-21FL (made for India first) and late MiG-21PFM. The MiG-21S also had only a gunpod, not an internal gun. This came with MiG-21M for export and MiG-21SM for soviet use.

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Good spot thanks..........MiG-21PM is supposed to be MiG-21MF..that was the most advanced variant they used against US forces.

The North Vietnam version of the PF was designated MiG-21PFL  (i76A) according to Yefim G...........Toperczer also uses MiG-21PFL in his 2017 book 'MiG-21 Aces of the Vietnam War'. I don't know where MiG-21PFV came from outside of TK.

The notes on there pertain to the F-104 and F-106 getting internal gun fixtures instead of pods (Su-9/11/15 also used pods)

 

 

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10 hours ago, MigBuster said:

Good spot thanks..........MiG-21PM is supposed to be MiG-21MF..that was the most advanced variant they used against US forces.

The North Vietnam version of the PF was designated MiG-21PFL  (i76A) according to Yefim G...........Toperczer also uses MiG-21PFL in his 2017 book 'MiG-21 Aces of the Vietnam War'. I don't know where MiG-21PFV came from outside of TK.

 

That the PM could be the MF i doubt. Because the MiG-21 came in 4 generation. The first generation was a daylight fighter without radar. The second generation was designed as interceptor with radar. The P was the symbol of that generation. It stands for perekhvatchik, interceptor. The third generation was multi role capable. Thatswhy the M for export models and S (saphire) for soviet used versions. The bis was the 4th generation.

I think the PM is a never existing version, like the PFMA, which you find often in the literature, but not in reality.

The PFL i found in Gordons book. I think he is wrong, because he cant tell us for what the L should stand. Topeczer repeated only what Gordon wrote. Why i say that? Because all letters have a meaning. P stands for radar equipment, F for stronger engines, S either for SPS System (border layer blowing system) or Saphire radar. T stands for more fuel (toplivo), -13 for equipment with K-13 missile. FL means "Frontline".

The single letter L has no meaning. It could have been used for "light" (lyokhki), but the plane Gordon mentioned was not lighter that the average MiG-21PF. It was a little bit heavier.

The V has a meaning, it stands for vetnamski (vietnamised) and was an indication for improved corrosion protection and additional protection against water and wet weather conditions (for instance the cooling slots in the radar cone were sealed). Gordon wrote, that the designation PF-V is wrong and was never used. And he is right. The designation was PFV, without "-". In russian laguage it is written so:   МиГ-21ПФВ.

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I meant that was a typo.....that was supposed to be MiG-21MF which they used and has been changed.

Mladenovs MiG-21 book uses MiG-21PFV I have noticed so that could be right.

 

 

 

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      USAF
      Decided the poor performance during Rolling Thunder was more related to technical issues, and actually reduced air-to-air training after 1968 if you could believe something so ridiculous [the 2 pilot F-4 policy was at least rescinded!].
      Although it was recognised by most it needed to change urgently, the internal politics and policies meant that was not happening. Real change only happened after 1972 with the change in high level staff and attitudes leading to the creation of programs like Red Flag.
       

      F-4C-23-MC 1966 (USAF)
      US Navy
      After the dismal F-4 air-to-air results the USN decided its F-4 pilots had not been adequately trained properly. Being ‘fleet defense’, training was based on using missiles and they had even abolished the Fleet Air Gunnery Unit in that time. Thus, air-to-air combat skills had deteriorated. [note: this didn’t apply to the well-trained F-8 crews of course that had far better results]
      This lead in 1969 to the creation of the Navy Fighter Weapons School (Top Gun) to get the Navy F-4 crews back to speed. The Navy also improved the technical side - they didn’t have ‘Combat Tree’, but had significantly better AIM-9 versions such as the D/G/H.

      F-4J from VF-114 (US Navy)
       
      How did the different attitudes to training work out for the USAF?
      During Linebacker 1 & 2 the US Navy kill ratio against MiGs was 6-1 and the USAFs was 2-1 however the kill ratios don’t include all the factors e.g. USAF F-4D/Es had Combat Tree, flew different Route Packs etc.
       
      So, to illustrate how inept USAF training really was at the end of US involvement in the war.
      In August / Sept 1972 a group of USN F-8 pilots spent a few weeks at Udorn RTAFB flying A-A training (or DACT) against USAF F-4 crews of the premier USAF MiG killing wing.
      The well-trained F-8 pilots [who had been used to dueling with USN F-4 Top Gun pilots] embarrassed the USAF F-4 crews, and were appalled at the tactics, training and lack of skill from a supposed A-A unit.
      An F-8 pilot said,” The contest between the F-4 and F-8s was so uneven at first we were ashamed by the disparity. The sight that remains in my mind is a chilling one for any number of MiG pilots must have identical views. The pitiful sight of four super fighters [USAF F-4s] in front of you all tucked in finger four, pulling a level turn. An atoll fired anywhere in parameters would be the proverbial mosquito in a nudist colony and wouldn’t know where to begin.” (Clashes by ex USAF F-4 veteran Michel III)
      The USN F-8 pilots felt the USAF crews needed basic instruction, not just training missions!
      Also consider that some of the USAF pilots were instructors or graduates of the USAF Fighter Weapons School, that was still preaching obsolete useless tactics and was resistant to change. This only confirmed what the USAF pilots already knew (they were so far behind). The USN report when sent to PACAF was dismissed by some as inter-service bias it seems.
       
      This next account sums things up perfectly:
      In 1974 the Air Force reassigned me from an overseas assignment in England to Nellis. When I arrived, I had over 1,200 hours in the F–4, including 365 combat hours. I had never flown a dissimilar air combat sortie(DACT). I had never carried a training AIM–9 and had not even seen one since my combat tour four years earlier. I had never used a gun camera. The only tactical formation I had flown was Fluid Four/Fighting Wing. I had never intercepted a target at low altitude. In other words, I was a typical F–4 pilot with a combat tour. (CR Anderegg - who went on to fly the vastly superior F-15 along with some actual A-A training!)

      F-4Bs of VF-114 (US Navy)
       
      The not so mysterious case of the VPAF Aces
      The first batch of VPAF (Vietnamese Peoples Air Force) pilots were sent in 1956 to China and were being trained on MiG-17s by 1960 in both China but primarily in the Soviet Union. The MiG-17 had no missiles initially and thus air combat employing guns had to be taught, so training included things like dogfighting.
      Drop outs were high with only around 20% of the pilots passing by the mid-1960s (the rest becoming ground technicians). This was lower than other Soviet ally nation pilots who typically had a better baseline education and had often already flown aircraft. [some of the Vietnamese had literally never seen an aircraft before]
      Over North Vietnam the MiGs became part of an Integrated Air Defence system (IADS) and had to fit around the AAA and later SAM defenses flying in restricted areas and altitudes and often tied to the GCI (Ground Control Intercept) stations. The VPAF were also consistently changing tactics that the pilots had to adapt to. However, the MiG pilots mostly had only one primary role and that was air-to- air combat.
      Being outnumbered but often having better situational awareness they often fought ambush “hit and run” tactics in small numbers. [this was smart!]
      What we can deduce is:
                They didn’t fly a 100-mission tour then go home, they had to fight until death.           Fighting for their home land probably meant motivation and dedication were not an issue. [Unlike the US, the VPAF were fighting a ‘total war’]           If they were shot down and survived then they were still on home turf.           With the experience and training some of these pilots were no doubt very skilled flyers. So, for example out of 18 VPAF MiG-21 pilots given official Ace status, 16 of them were shot down and some of them were shot down 3 times!

      MiG-21MF Fishbed with AA-1s and AA-2s (Wikipedia)
       
      Let’s do the myth and mystery of Colonel Tomb
      Prior to better information the ‘13 kill ace, Colonel Tomb’ was apparently shot down and killed on 10 May 1972 in a famous (and very close) 1 v 1 MiG-17F v F-4J dogfight against US Navy Top Gun Graduates Randy Cunningham/Willie Driscoll.  
      Willie Driscoll in a 2018 podcast describes how capable he thought the pilot was. [but still also thinks he had 13 kills to his name].

      Showtime 100 downs a MiG-17 (dogfighthistory.be)
      In 2007 A document called On Watch was declassified and released by Freedom of Information by the National Security Agency (NSA). In the section “Comrade Toon Flies the unfriendly skies”, it seems that NSA SIGINT analysts were able to unlock the MiG pilots callsign system and had identified an ace who flew out of Phuc Yen called “Toon”. Head of the Seventh Air Force General Momyer wanted him out of the skies and it is said became obsessed with getting rid of him. It states:
      “The SIGINT detachment alerted Momyer’s HQ whenever Toon was scheduled to fly a mission, and Momyer would send his planes aloft to hunt down the Red Baron of North Vietnam.”
       
      It seems that Toon was quite adept at avoiding these aircraft and one dark night [no date] after taking off from Vinh (South NVN) in a MiG-21 and avoiding the US fighters he intercepted a flight of B-52s and fired 2 missiles. One failed but the other lodged into the wing of a B-52 and didn’t detonate. Despite this the B-52s, following standard procedure ditched their ordnance and so he had a mission kill anyway.
      It states they were never able to catch him (or perhaps it meant "them" ?).
      Trying to match this up...........In 1971 MiG-21 Ace Dinh Ton appears to be the only Ace [6 claims / 4 match up] involved in intercepting B-52s from South NVN.  On the 4th October he took off from Dong Hoi (near Vinh), but was unable to fire on the B-52s because of the Escorting F-4s.  
      On the 20th November Hoang Bieu took off from Vinh [MiG-21] as a diversion and another pilot (Vu Dinh Rang) was able to fire two R-3S Atolls [from his MiG-21] at a B-52 and one of the missiles hit and damaged the bomber. This was the first successful intercept of a B-52 according to the VPAF [ USAFs "War Above The Clouds" does mention a Missile fired from a MiG at B-52s on the 20th November during Commando Hunt VII - causing the mission to be called off ]
      So, although it looks like there really was an ace called Toon I do wonder if they were able to see everything and not still tracking different pilots.
      If [big if] the real Toon was Dinh Ton, then he was eventually shot down on 11 Sept 1972 in a MiG-21U by a VMFA-333 F-4J (Lasseter/Cummings) Both Ton and the backseat IP ejected safely.
       
      No VPAF pilot claimed more than 9 kills, the 13 number most likely came from VPAF MiGs photographed and sent to the media at the time including May 1968 a photo of MiG-21PFV (4326) with 13 red stars (kills) on its nose and MiG-17 (3020). In reality the 13 kills were the sum of those claimed by several different flyers of that Jet.
       

      MiG-17 Fresco (warbirdsresourcegroup.org)
       
      So, who did Driscoll / Cunningham shoot down then on the 10th May?  
      Four MiG-17s were scrambled to intercept the raid on the Hai Duong Railway yard that Showtime 100 (Cunningham/Driscoll) was covering.
      Pilots Do Hang, Tran Van Kiem, Nguyen Van Tho were 923rd regiment MiG-17 pilots hit by missiles on that date but nothing conclusive describing a prolonged 1v1 fight. (Hang and Kiem were both killed)
      There were J-6s (Chinese MiG-19s) also in combat that day (925th regiment) but over different areas. Only Le Duc Oanh was shot down on the 10th being hit by a missile and ejected (later died of injuries) but not described as a prolonged 1v1 dogfight. Le Van Tuong was the other fatality when he overran the runway and turned over.
      No MiG-19/J-6s claims were made by the US on the 10th despite one being shot down - they were probably (understandably) misidentified as MiG-17s it seems by US pilots in the heat of combat.

      Shenyang J-6 / MiG-19S Farmer (vnmilitaria.com)
       
       
      When it comes to A-A guns over Vietnam let us not forget
      The F-8 Crusader
      Unlike the USN F-4 pilots the F-8 community was well trained in traditional BFM/ACM from the start and could make use of the 4 cannon in its nose providing they didn’t fire them under high G loading that caused them to Jam! (Leading one pilot to describe the guns as very unreliable under High G loading). This training served them well and by the end of Rolling Thunder the stats would suggest they did well compared to the F-4 units, which of course was replacing the F-8s at that time.
      Out of the 19 A-A kill claims, 3 were with the gun.

      F-8E (Seaforces.com)
       
      The F-105 Thunderchief
      In somewhat of a paradox the USAF F-105 had the most encounters over Vietnam with MiGs and racked up about 26 MiG-17 kills (out of 140 gun engagements) with its M61A1 Gatling Gun.
      Some F-105 pilots had complained of poor A-A training in Red Baron. Jack Broughton described a different community with many old heads from Korea who knew their A-A anyway (considered themselves fighter jocks) and trainees were taught when they came to theatre.
      Some probable reasons for the gun kills include:
                The F-105 often didn’t carry AIM-9Bs due to available pylons or sometimes lack of availability.           The AIM-9B was inferior to the AIM-9D used by the F-8.           The M61A1 was far more reliable than the F-8s (MK-12) guns, only failing in about 12 percent of firing passes           Being ‘All Aspect’ the gun was easier to employ over the restrictive AIM-9B envelope.
      F-105D - king of the Brrrt (Global Aviation Resource)
       
       
      Guns on modern fighters (the F-35A)
      The last US A-A (manned) gun kill was in Feb 1991 when an A-10A shot down an Iraqi Mi-8 Helicopter. There is also a 1992 video of a FAV F-16A gunning down an OV-10E in a Venezuelan coup. But who cares really because guns have been used in all the low-key wars since then. In fact, jets including the F-14/16/15/18/Harrier have all used guns to strafe enemy personnel and equipment on a very regular basis. So, as we see just in 1963 with the F-4E, the requirement for a gun for Air to Ground is just as strong now as it was then.
      Let’s look at why the USAF may have put an internal gun on the F-35A, according to a 2007 paper by Colonel Charles Moore who was so adamant the F-35A needed a gun that he writes:
      Regardless of the opinions of the USMC, USN or (F-35) Joint Program Office, the USAF must not become dismayed or discouraged by the difficulties in achieving the capabilities it has determined it required. Within the air to air and air to ground environments, the gun has proven to be a reliable and irreplaceable weapon. Even if Lockheed [Martin] declares it will not be able to fully meet the requirements and specifications the USAF desires, disallowing requirement relief sends a strong message that the capabilities offered by the gun are not negotiable.
       
      Important these are “Arguments For” only (there are probably very valid arguments against) and quite a few things can change in 11 years!
      His arguments include:
      On A-A use
                A-A missiles do not have a 100% PK, especially against advanced adversaries.           Its limited missile supply could be exhausted quickly if faced by a significant number of low tech adversaries.           The F-35 may not be able to egress from all adversaries based on its slower speeds and may need to stay and fight.           When defending other assets, it may need to stand and fight regardless.          Gun employment is less reliant on on-board systems working such as radar.           All the modern tech in the world cannot protect an aircraft from the oldest weapon in A-A combat [when in range]. The Gun is simple, efficient, effective and always available. On Gun Pods
                It is seldom known when you will need a gun system so carrying it only when needed is not practical.           Risk of RCS (Radar Cross Section) increase.           Risk of having performance issues like the previous gun pods e.g. GAU 5 (Pave Claw) or SUU16/23           Additional logistics required. On A-G use
                Despite being poor in power compared to PGMs and IAMs, the gun will remain after those have been expended and can be used if called upon. This happened many time in Desert Storm, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.           Can be used where PGM/IAMs are too powerful and can be prohibited or ill-advised such as urban situations.           Can be used on moving targets.            Gun considered the only true multi role weapon to be carried.            Can be used to supress (rather than kill) and provide just a warning.           Sometimes offers a quicker reaction time because of less setup over other ordnance.           Less dependent on targeting sensors so can be used in event of failures with those.
      F-35A Lightning II - gun is port side (USAF)
       
       
      Sources
      Clashes (M.L.Michel III, 1997) Naval Institute Press
      Thud Ridge (J.M.Broughton, 1969) Crecy Publishing
      F-105 Thunderchief MiG Killers of the Vietnam War (P.Davies, 2014) Osprey Publishing
      F-8 Crusader Units of the Vietnam War (P. Mersky, 1998) Osprey Publishing
      MiG-21 Units of the Vietnam War (I.Toperczer, 2001) Osprey Publishing
      MiG-17 and MiG-19 Units of the Vietnam War (I.Toperczer, 2001) Osprey Publishing
      MiG-21 Aces of the Vietnam War (I.Toperczer, 2017) Osprey Publishing
      MiG-17 and MiG-19 Aces of the Vietnam War (I.Toperczer, 2017) Osprey Publishing
      USAF McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II (P.Davies, 2013) Osprey Publishing
      USN McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II (P.Davies, 2016) Osprey Publishing
      US Navy F-4 Phantom II MiG Killers 1972 -73 (B.Elward & P.Davies, 2002) Osprey Publishing
      US Navy F-4 Phantom II MiG Killers 1965 -70 (B.Elward & P.Davies, 2001) Osprey Publishing
      USAF F-4 Phantom II MiG Killers 1972 -73 (P.Davies, 2005) Osprey Publishing
      USAF F-4 Phantom II MiG Killers 1965 -68 (P.Davies, 2004) Osprey Publishing
      The Revolt of the Majors: How the Air Force changed after Vietnam (M.L.Michell III)
      RED BARON Project Volume I - III (1969) Weapon Systems Evaluation Group (WSEG)
      The Need for a Permanent Gun System on the F-35 JSF (Colonel C.Moore, 2007) Air Force Fellows Air University, Maxwell AF Base
      SIERRA HOTEL (C. R.ANDEREGG, 2001) Air Force History and Museums Program
      Research Study of radar reliability and its impact on life-cycle costs for the APQ-113. 114, -120 and -144 radars (1973). Technical report by General Electric under contract to the USAF.
      McDonnell F-4E Phantom II (Baugher J, 2002) online
      ON WATCH Profiles from the National Security Agencys past 40 years (1984) National Security Agency
      War from above the clouds (Head WP, 2002) Air University Press Maxwell AFB
      Information on F-4E radar range from Forum entry by ex F-4 flyer Walt BJ (Bjorneby, Walter)
      Willie Driscoll interview from Podcast Episode 009 “Vietnam Ace” (V.Aiello, 2018 ) http://fighterpilotpodcast.com/
      Title photo credit USAF
    • By Spinners


      View File RAF Phantom FG.2 (No.38 Group)
      McDonnell Douglas Phantom FG.2 for STRIKE FIGHTERS 1
      This is a simple mod of the stock Phantom F-4B to give a 'what if' J79 powered Phantom FG.2 tactical fighter with markings for No.6, No.41 and No.54 squadrons of No.38 Group of RAF Strike Command as they might have appeared in the late 1960's but I've also included some two-colour B-type markings for you to play around with.
      In theory, this should work in any 'first generation' game that has the standard F-4B LOD's. As SFG and WOV does not have the RAF Letter codes I've made some of my own in yellow and white and included them here to help avoid bare fins although there's plenty going on in fin land.

      BACKSTORY
      The successful first flight of the McDonnell XF4H-1 (Phantom II) on May 27th, 1958 certainly piqued the interest of both the RAF and the Royal Navy and by 1959 both were granted official 'observer status' on the project. The realisation that only two of the Royal Navy's five aircraft carriers could operate an aircraft of the XF4H-1's size (and that only after extensive modernisation) soon cooled the interest of the Senior Service but the RAF could see a promising aircraft of obvious potential across many roles and not just in their search for a Hunter replacement. By 1960 McDonnell were scheming various tactical fighter versions of the F4H-1 Phantom II with J79 engines including a minimum change version of the baseline USN F-4B to replace the Hunter and Javelin in RAF service and supplement the Lightning.
      The RAF had already bore the brunt of the 1957 Defence White Paper and had then suffered the ignominy of losing the UK's nuclear deterent in the planned switch from V-Force to Polaris. Following this heavy perceived loss of status the Air Staff were so determined to get the TSR.2 that in March 1961 they volunteered to forsake the supersonic V/STOL P.1154 strike fighter and STOL AW.681 tactical transport and replace both with off the shelf purchases of American aircraft. Both projects were declared as "too technically challenging to succeed in the current fiscal situation" but the early cashing-in of both projects did ultimately save the TSR.2 which went on to survive the 1964 Budget Review and enter RAF service at the end of the 1960's.
      Meanwhile, back in August 1961 the UK Government became the first export customer for McDonnell's XF4H-1 with an order for 350 aircraft consisting of 150 interceptor-fighters for RAF Fighter Command and 200 tactical fighters for RAF Germany and No.38 Group. Designated by McDonnell as the F-4K and by the RAF as Phantom F.1 and Phantom FGA.2 the first F-4K rolled off the St. Louis production line in February 1963 with a ceremonial first flight on April 1st, 1963 to coincide with the RAF's 45th birthday celebrations. These early RAF Phantoms retained the AAA-4 infrared search and tracking sensor fitted to a prominent bulge underneath the radome housing the powerful AN/APQ-72 radar and were powered by two General Electric J79-GE-8A engines each rated at 10,000lbs dry thrust and 17,000 lbs thrust with afterburner.
      The Phantom FG.2 entered service with No.41 squadron at Coningsby in January 1966 and eventually equipped no less than ten RAF squadrons at home and abroad.

      INSTRUCTIONS
      1. From the AIRCRAFT folder drag and drop the PhantomFG2 folder into your Aircraft folder.
      2. From the DECALS folder drag and drop the PhantomFG2 into your Decals folder.

      CREDITS
      Thanks to TK for a great little game/sim.
      And thanks to everyone in the wider Third Wire community.
      Regards
      Spinners
      Version 2 - 01/04/18
      Version 1 - 26/02/09
       
      Submitter Spinners Submitted 02/20/2009 Category Fictional Aircraft, Experimental and UAV's  
    • By Spinners
      McDonnell Douglas Phantom FG.2 for STRIKE FIGHTERS 1
      This is a simple mod of the stock Phantom F-4B to give a 'what if' J79 powered Phantom FG.2 tactical fighter with markings for No.6, No.41 and No.54 squadrons of No.38 Group of RAF Strike Command as they might have appeared in the late 1960's but I've also included some two-colour B-type markings for you to play around with.
      In theory, this should work in any 'first generation' game that has the standard F-4B LOD's. As SFG and WOV does not have the RAF Letter codes I've made some of my own in yellow and white and included them here to help avoid bare fins although there's plenty going on in fin land.

      BACKSTORY
      The successful first flight of the McDonnell XF4H-1 (Phantom II) on May 27th, 1958 certainly piqued the interest of both the RAF and the Royal Navy and by 1959 both were granted official 'observer status' on the project. The realisation that only two of the Royal Navy's five aircraft carriers could operate an aircraft of the XF4H-1's size (and that only after extensive modernisation) soon cooled the interest of the Senior Service but the RAF could see a promising aircraft of obvious potential across many roles and not just in their search for a Hunter replacement. By 1960 McDonnell were scheming various tactical fighter versions of the F4H-1 Phantom II with J79 engines including a minimum change version of the baseline USN F-4B to replace the Hunter and Javelin in RAF service and supplement the Lightning.
      The RAF had already bore the brunt of the 1957 Defence White Paper and had then suffered the ignominy of losing the UK's nuclear deterent in the planned switch from V-Force to Polaris. Following this heavy perceived loss of status the Air Staff were so determined to get the TSR.2 that in March 1961 they volunteered to forsake the supersonic V/STOL P.1154 strike fighter and STOL AW.681 tactical transport and replace both with off the shelf purchases of American aircraft. Both projects were declared as "too technically challenging to succeed in the current fiscal situation" but the early cashing-in of both projects did ultimately save the TSR.2 which went on to survive the 1964 Budget Review and enter RAF service at the end of the 1960's.
      Meanwhile, back in August 1961 the UK Government became the first export customer for McDonnell's XF4H-1 with an order for 350 aircraft consisting of 150 interceptor-fighters for RAF Fighter Command and 200 tactical fighters for RAF Germany and No.38 Group. Designated by McDonnell as the F-4K and by the RAF as Phantom F.1 and Phantom FGA.2 the first F-4K rolled off the St. Louis production line in February 1963 with a ceremonial first flight on April 1st, 1963 to coincide with the RAF's 45th birthday celebrations. These early RAF Phantoms retained the AAA-4 infrared search and tracking sensor fitted to a prominent bulge underneath the radome housing the powerful AN/APQ-72 radar and were powered by two General Electric J79-GE-8A engines each rated at 10,000lbs dry thrust and 17,000 lbs thrust with afterburner.
      The Phantom FG.2 entered service with No.41 squadron at Coningsby in January 1966 and eventually equipped no less than ten RAF squadrons at home and abroad.

      INSTRUCTIONS
      1. From the AIRCRAFT folder drag and drop the PhantomFG2 folder into your Aircraft folder.
      2. From the DECALS folder drag and drop the PhantomFG2 into your Decals folder.

      CREDITS
      Thanks to TK for a great little game/sim.
      And thanks to everyone in the wider Third Wire community.
      Regards
      Spinners
      Version 2 - 01/04/18
      Version 1 - 26/02/09
       
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